Advertisement

Habits and Quality of Diet

  • Iris Iglesia
  • Alba Maria Santaliestra-Pasías
  • Luis Alberto Moreno Aznar
Chapter

Abstract

Diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviours are the main determinants of health status in adolescence when the lifestyle behaviours may be established to adulthood. In this period, nutritional status vulnerability is determined by the influence of peers and current obesogenic environment. All of them, model body composition, consequently propitiate the onset of future non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), or metabolic disorders among others. From a preventable point of view, adequate nutritional interventions must be emphasized during adolescence, as they are really in a vulnerable period in this sense. The selection of the most adequate interventions based on the current data is not an easy task, as most of them have been performed in underdeveloped countries focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This means there is still a knowledge gap which must be filled in the coming years due to the high impact that is expected based on the current numbers of early onset of obesity worldwide, sometimes even accompanied by micronutrient deficiencies due to imbalanced diets. To do this important task, a research gap in the area of dietary assessment method in young populations is required in advance. To facilitate the education programmes of such populations, a common language of dietary patterns rather than nutrients must be emphasized in order to reduce the complexity of healthy nutrition messages.

Keywords

Adolescence Lifestyle behaviours Micronutrients Dietary patterns Dietary assessment methods Nutritional interventions 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence intervals

CVD

Cardiovascular diseases

DP

Dietary patterns

FMI

Fat mass index

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

NCDs

Non-communicable diseases

OR, POR

Odds ratio, pooled odds ratio

PA

Physical activity

UK

United Kingdom

References

  1. 1.
    European Food Information Council (EUFIC). Child and adolescent nutrition. 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rodrigues PRM, Luiz RR, Monteiro LS, Ferreira MG, Gonçalves-Silva RMV, Pereira RA. Adolescents’ unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping. Nutrition. 2017;42:114–20.e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. Nutrition in adolescence: issues and challenges for the health sector: issues in adolescent health and development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    WHO. Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable disease: 2013-2020. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Subar AF, Freedman LS, Tooze JA, Kirkpatrick SI, Boushey C, Neuhouser ML, et al. Addressing current criticism regarding the value of self-report dietary data. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2639–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Richter A, Rabenberg M, Truthmann J, Heidemann C, Roosen J, Thiele S, et al. Associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of nutrient status and cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS). BMC Nutr. 2017;3(1):4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Collese TS, Vatavuk-Serrati G, Nascimento-Ferreira MV, De Moraes ACF, Carvalho HB. What is the validity of questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption in children when compared with blood biomarkers? A meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):E1396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vandevijvere S, Geelen A, Gonzalez-Gross M, van't Veer P, Dallongeville J, Mouratidou T, et al. Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Br J Nutr. 2013;109(4):736–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coulston A, Boushey C, Ferruzzi M. Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. New York: Academic; 2013.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    WHO. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Paris: WHO; 2004.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Craigie AM, Lake AA, Kelly SA, Adamson AJ, Mathers JC. Tracking of obesity-related behaviours from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review. Maturitas. 2011;70(3):266–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lloyd LJ, Langley-Evans SC, McMullen S. Childhood obesity and risk of the adult metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Int J Obes. 2012;36(1):1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hosseini B, Berthon BS, Wark P, Wood LG. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on risk of asthma, wheezing and immune responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2017;9(4):E341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Denova-Gutierrez E, Mendez-Sanchez L, Munoz-Aguirre P, Tucker KL, Clark P. Dietary patterns, bone mineral density, and risk of fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2018;10(12):E1922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kelly SA, Hartley L, Loveman E, Colquitt JL, Jones HM, Al-Khudairy L, et al. Whole grain cereals for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:Cd005051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marventano S, Izquierdo Pulido M, Sanchez-Gonzalez C, Godos J, Speciani A, Galvano F, et al. Legume consumption and CVD risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2017;20(2):245–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ndanuko RN, Tapsell LC, Charlton KE, Neale EP, Batterham MJ. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(1):76–89.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neale EP, Batterham MJ, Tapsell LC. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis. Nutr Res. 2016;36:391–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Montanaro C. Cardiovascular risk in adolescents. Int J Cardiol. 2017;240:444–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, Albus C, Brotons C, Catapano AL, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts) developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J. 2016;37(29):2315–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Damsgaard CT, Biltoft-Jensen A, Tetens I, Michaelsen KF, Lind MV, Astrup A, et al. Whole-grain intake, reflected by dietary records and biomarkers, is inversely associated with circulating insulin and other cardiometabolic markers in 8- to 11-year-old children. J Nutr. 2017;147(5):816–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Slavin JL. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(10):1716–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Te Morenga L, Montez JM. Health effects of saturated and trans-fatty acid intake in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0186672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Penczynski KJ, Remer T, Herder C, Kalhoff H, Rienks J, Markgraf DF, et al. Habitual flavonoid intake from fruit and vegetables during adolescence and serum lipid levels in early adulthood: a prospective analysis. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):E488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guo J, Astrup A, Lovegrove JA, Gijsbers L, Givens DI, Soedamah-Muthu SS. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017;32(4):269–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alhassan A, Young J, Lean MEJ, Lara J. Consumption of fish and vascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Atherosclerosis. 2017;266:87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Movassagh EZ, Baxter-Jones ADG, Kontulainen S, Whiting S, Szafron M, Vatanparast H. Vegetarian-style dietary pattern during adolescence has long-term positive impact on bone from adolescence to young adulthood: a longitudinal study. Nutr J. 2018;17(1):36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Herbison CE, Hickling S, Allen KL, O’Sullivan TA, Robinson M, Bremner AP, et al. Low intake of B-vitamins is associated with poor adolescent mental health and behaviour. Prev Med. 2012;55(6):634–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jacka FN, Mykletun A, Berk M. Moving towards a population health approach to the primary prevention of common mental disorders. BMC Med. 2012;10:149.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Owen L, Corfe B. The role of diet and nutrition on mental health and wellbeing. Proc Nutr Soc. 2017;76(4):425–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carding S, Verbeke K, Vipond DT, Corfe BM, Owen LJ. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2015;26:26191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marker AM, Steele RG, Noser AE. Physical activity and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 2018;37(10):893–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hills AP, Street SJ, Byrne NM. Physical activity and health: “what is old is new again”. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2015;75:77–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whooten R, Kerem L, Stanley T. Physical activity in adolescents and children and relationship to metabolic health. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2018;26(1):25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Biddle SJ, Asare M. Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(11):886–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ruiz JR, Cavero-Redondo I, Ortega FB, Welk GJ, Andersen LB, Martinez-Vizcaino V. Cardiorespiratory fitness cut points to avoid cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents; what level of fitness should raise a red flag? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(23):1451–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barnett TA, Kelly AS, Young DR, Perry CK, Pratt CA, Edwards NM, et al. Sedentary behaviors in today’s youth: approaches to the prevention and management of childhood obesity: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018;138(11):e142–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics. 2001;107(2):423–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Oliveira RG, Guedes DP. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome in adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational evidence. PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0168503.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yang Y, Shin JC, Li D, An R. Sedentary behavior and sleep problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Med. 2017;24(4):481–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Patterson R, McNamara E, Tainio M, de Sa TH, Smith AD, Sharp SJ, et al. Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol. 2018;33(9):811–29.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    WHO. Preparations and use of food-based dietary guidelines, NUT=96.6. Geneva: WHO; 1996.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Olmedilla B, Granado F. Growth and micronutrient needs of adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(Suppl 1):S11–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dillard CJGJ. Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric. 2000;80:1744–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bender DA. Introduction to nutrition and metabolism. 4th ed. New York: Taylor & Francis; 2008. 317 p.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hernández ÁG. Tratado de Nutrición. Tomo IV. 3rd ed. Mexico City: Editorial Médica Panamericana; 2017.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fenández-Alvira JM, Iglesia I, Ferreira-Pêgo C, Babio N, Salas-Salvadó J, Moreno LA. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents; a cross-sectional study. Nutr Hosp. 2014;29(5):1163–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hoffmann K, Schulze MB, Schienkiewitz A, Nöthlings U, Boeing H. Application of a new statistical method to derive dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(10):935–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    United States Department of Agriculture. A series of systematic reviews on the relationship between dietary patterns and health outcomes. 2014. https://www.cnpp.usda.gov/nutrition-evidence-librarydietary-patterns-systematic-review-project.
  50. 50.
    Department of Nutrition for Health and Development. Policy brief: the double burden of malnutrition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. www.who.int/nutrition.
  51. 51.
    Min J, Zhao Y, Slivka L, Wang Y. Double burden of diseases worldwide: coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition-related non-communicable chronic diseases. Obes Rev. 2019;19(1):49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boylan S, Lallukka T, Lahelma E, Pikhart H, Malyutina S, Pajak A, et al. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(4):678–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hinnig PF, Monteiro JS, de Assis MAA, Levy RB, Peres MA, Perazi FM, et al. Dietary patterns of children and adolescents from high, medium and low human development countries and associated socioeconomic factors: a systematic review. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):E436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Iguacel I, Fernandez-Alvira JM, Bammann K, De Clercq B, Eiben G, Gwozdz W, et al. Associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(7):1288–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Moreno LA, Bel-Serrat S, Santaliestra-Pasías A, Bueno G. Dairy products, yogurt consumption, and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Nutr Rev. 2015;73(Suppl 1):8–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Collese TS, Nascimento-Ferreira MV, de Moraes ACF, Rendo-Urteaga T, Bel-Serrat S, Moreno LA, et al. Role of fruits and vegetables in adolescent cardiovascular health: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2017;75(5):339–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gow ML, Garnett SP, Baur LA, Lister NB. The Effectiveness of different diet strategies to reduce type 2 diabetes risk in youth. Nutrients. 2016;8(8):E486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    O’Neil A, Quirk SE, Housden S, Brennan SL, Williams LJ, Pasco JA, et al. Relationship between diet and mental health in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(10):e31–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Khalid S, Williams CM, Reynolds SA. Is there an association between diet and depression in children and adolescents? A systematic review. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(12):2097–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Opie RS, Itsiopoulos C, Parletta N, Sanchez-Villegas A, Akbaraly TN, Ruusunen A, et al. Dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression. Nutr Neurosci. 2017;20(3):161–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Iaccarino Idelson P, Scalfi L, Valerio G. Adherence to the mediterranean diet in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27(4):283–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Santaliestra-Pasias AM, Mouratidou T, Verbestel V, Huybrechts I, Gottrand F, Le Donne C, et al. Food consumption and screen-based sedentary behaviors in european adolescents the HELENA Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(11):1010–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Santaliestra-Pasias AM, Mouratidou T, Huybrechts I, Beghin L, Cuenca-Garcia M, Castillo MJ, et al. Increased sedentary behaviour is associated with unhealthy dietary patterns in European adolescents participating in the HELENA study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(3):300–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    do Amaral E, Melo GR, de Carvalho Silva Vargas F, Dos Santos Chagas CM, Toral N. Nutritional interventions for adolescents using information and communication technologies (ICTs): a systematic review. PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0184509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Salam RA, Hooda M, Das JK, Arshad A, Lassi ZS, Middleton P, et al. Interventions to improve adolescent nutrition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Adolesc Health. 2016;59(4S):S29–39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Rex J. New moves: a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent girls. Prev Med. 2003;37(1):41–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1986.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Webb TL, Joseph J, Yardley L, Michie S. Using the internet to promote health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. J Med Internet Res. 2010;12(1):e4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Haerens L, Deforche B, Maes L, Brug J, Vandelanotte C, De Bourdeaudhuij I. A computer-tailored dietary fat intake intervention for adolescents: results of a randomized controlled trial. Ann Behav Med. 2007;34(3):253–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Maes L, Cook TL, Ottovaere C, Matthijs C, Moreno LA, Kersting M, et al. Pilot evaluation of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) food-o-meter, a computer-tailored nutrition advice for adolescents: a study in six European cities. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(7):1292–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ezendam NP, Evans AE, Stigler MH, Brug J, Oenema A. Cognitive and home environmental predictors of change in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(5):768–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iris Iglesia
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alba Maria Santaliestra-Pasías
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Luis Alberto Moreno Aznar
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development (GENUD) Research GroupInstituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Universidad de ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Fundación del Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón)ZaragozaSpain
  3. 3.Red de Salud Materno-infantil y del Desarrollo (SAMID)Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  4. 4.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn)Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations