Advertisement

Two-Faced Janus: The Role of Peers in Adolescence

  • Marta PozziEmail author
  • Mario Becciu
  • Anna Rita Colasanti
Chapter

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to examine the role of peers in adolescence. Specifically, our focus will be on their twofold influence on the individual, since the peer group may, on one hand, promote wellbeing and social adjustment, and, on the other, affect the development of unhealthy risk behaviors.

We will start with a brief definition and description of the peer group, with an analysis of its functions in adolescence and a discussion on when and how it serves as a safety net or as a hindering factor for development and psychological wellbeing.

The role of Internet in teen socialization will then be considered, examining, again, the factors modulating risks and opportunities.

A paragraph will also be dedicated to a description of the processes and mechanisms through which peers exert their influence on the individual and of the factors affecting this relationship.

In the conclusion, considering these relevant influences of peers on adolescents’ health and development, we will discuss the use of peer education and self-help groups, as promising strategies for prevention and promotion of wellbeing in young age.

Keywords

Peers Protective factors Risk factors Social influence Life skills Self-help Peer education 

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (WHO). Social determinants of health. 2017. http://www.who.int/social.determinants/en/. Accessed 17 May 2017.
  2. 2.
    Viner RM, Ozer EM, Denny S, Marmot M, Resnick M, Fatusi A, Currie C. Adolescence and the social determinants of health. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1641–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60149-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buzzi C, Cavalli A, De Lillo A, editors. Rapporto giovani. Sesta indagine dell'istituto Iard sulla condizione giovanile in Italia. Bologna: Il Mulino; 2007. Italian.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ponzi A, Menesini E. Conformismo e autonomia: la funzione del gruppo dei pari in adolescenza. Rivista Psicol Anal. 1988;37:61–77. Italian.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark ML, Bittle ML. Friendship expectations and the evaluation of present friendships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Child Study J. 1992;22(2):115–35.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fonzi A, Tani F. Amici per la pelle. Le caratteristiche dei legami amicali in adolescenza. In: Caprara GV, Fonzi A, editors. L’età sospesa. Itinerari del viaggio adolescenziale. Firenze: Giunti; 2000. p. 90–120. Italian.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hartup WW, Stevens N. Friendship and adaptation in the life course. Psychol Bull. 1997;121(3):355–70.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ausubel DP. Theory and problems of adolescent development. New York: Grune & Stratton; 1954.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Erikson EH. Gioventù e crisi d’identità [Identity. Youth and crisis]. Roma: Armando; 1974. Italian.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Freddi C. La funzione del gruppo in adolescenza. Il gruppo dei pari, terapeutico e di classe. I seminari di Area G. Milano. Milan: Franco Angeli; 2009. Italian.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fine GA. Friend, impression, management and preadolescent behavior. In: Asher SR, Gottman JM, editors. The development of children’s friendship. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1981. p. 29–52.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Amerio P. Individui e gruppi nell’ottica cognitiva psicosociale. In: Trentini G, editor. Il cerchio magico. Milano: Franco Angeli; 1987. p. 21–54. Italian.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Palmonari A, editor. Psicologia dell’adolescenza. 2nd ed. Bologna: Il Mulino; 1997. Italian.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Erikson EH. Infanzia e società [Childhood and society]. Roma: Armando; 1966. Italian.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roggero A, Rabaglietti E, Ciairano S. Il mio gruppo di amici: le relazioni con i coetanei nella promozione del benessere in adolescenza. Psicol Salud. 2006;3:49–66. Italian.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pombeni ML. L’adolescente e i gruppi di coetanei. In: Palmonari A, editor. Psicologia dell’adolescenza. 2nd ed. Bologna: Il Mulino; 1997. Italian.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Steinberg L. A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Dev Rev. 2008;28(1):78–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burnett S, Sebastian C, Cohen Kadosh K, Blakemore SJ. The social brain in adolescence: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35(8):1654–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Siegel DJ. Brainstorm. The power and purpose of the teenager brain. New York: Penguin Group; 2013.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Somerville LH. The teenage brain: sensitivity to social evaluation. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2013;22(2):121–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721413476512.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zani B, Cicognani E, editors. Le vie del benessere. Eventi di vita e strategie di coping. Roma: Carocci; 1999. Italian.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cattelino E. Relazioni con i coetanei in adolescenza. Il contributo degli amici e del partner nella promozione del benessere, vol. 65. Firenze: Età Evolutiva; Giunti; 2000. p. 102–11. Italian.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zani B. L’adolescente e la sessualità. In: Palmonari A, editor. Psicologia dell’adolescenza. 2nd ed. Bologna: Il Mulino; 1997. p. 201–27. Italian.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ueno K. The effect of friendship networks on adolescent depressive symptoms. Soc Sci Res. 2005;34(3):484–510.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2004.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Diener E. Subjective well-being. Psychol Bull. 1984;95(3):542–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vaquera E, Kao G. Do you like me as much as I like you? Friendship reciprocity and its effect on school outcomes among adolescent. Soc Sci Res. 2008;37(1):55–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.11.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Camacho I, Tomé G, de Matos MG, Gamito P, Diniz JA. A escola e os adolescentes: Qual a influencia da familia e dosamigos? Rev Psicol Cianca Adolesc. 2010;1:101–16. Spanish.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lynch A, Lerner RM, Leventhal T. Adolescent academic achievement and school engagement: an examination of the role of school-wide peer culture. J Youth Adolesc. 2013;42(1):6–19.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9833-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nota L, Soresi S. I comportamenti sociali: dall’analisi all’intervento. Pordenone: Erip Editrice; 1997. Italian.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Allen JP, Antonishak J. Adolescent peer influences: beyond the dark side. In: Prinstein MJ, Dodge KA, editors. Understanding peer influence in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press; 2008. p. 141–60.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Larson RW, Tran SP. Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. J Youth Adolesc. 2014;43(6):1012–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0118-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Choukas-Bradley S, Giletta M, Cohen GL, Prinstein MJ. Peer influence, peer status and prosocial behavior: an experimental investigation of peer socialization of adolescents’ intentions to volunteer. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44(12):2197–210.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0373-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Regoliosi L. La prevenzione del disagio giovanile. Roma: Nuova Italia Scientifica; 1994. Italian.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bonino S, Cattelino E, Ciairano S. Adolescenti e rischio. Firenze: Giunti; 2007. Italian.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gardner M, Steinberg L. Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: an experimental study. Dev Psychol. 2005;41(4):625–35.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.41.4.625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maggiolini A. Senza paura senza pietà. Valutazione e trattamento degli adolescenti antisociali. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore; 2014. Italian.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Caretti V, La Barbera D. Le dipendenze patologiche. Clinica e psicopatologia. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore; 2005. Italian.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Luppi C, Benedetti E, Molinaro S, ESPAD®Italia 2016. I dati sul consumo di sostanze e sui comportamenti a rischio nella popolazione studentesca. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto Fisiologia Clinica (CNR-IFC). Italian.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    ESPAD Group. ESPAD report 2015: results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2016.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Simons-Morton B, Farhat T. Recent findings on peer group influences on adolescent substance use. J Prim Prev. 2010;31(4):191–208.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-010-0220-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Filippidis FT, Agaku IT, Vardavas CI. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries. Eur J Pub Health. 2015;25(5):814–8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Scalici F, Schulz PJ. Parents’ and peers’ normative influence on adolescents’ smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2017;12(1):5.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-017-0089-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kuipers MAG, Robert PO, Richter M, Rathmann K, Rimpelä AH, Perelman J, Federico B, Lorant V, Kunst AE. Individual and contextual determinants of perceived peer smoking prevalence among adolescents in six European cities. Prev Med. 2016;88:168–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.04.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Underage drinking. 2017. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/special-populations-co-occurring-disorders/underage-drinking. Accessed 17 Oct 2018.
  45. 45.
    Oesterle S, Hill KG, Hawkins JD, Guo J, Catalano RF, Abbott RD. Adolescent heavy episodic drinking trajectories and health in young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65(2):204–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Donaldson CD, Handren LM, Crano WD. The enduring impact of parents’ monitoring, warmth, expectancies, and alcohol use on their children’s future binge drinking and arrests: a longitudinal analysis. Prev Sci. 2016;17(5):606–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-016-0656-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Monahan KC, Steinberg L, Cauffman E. Affiliation with antisocial peers, susceptibility to peer influence, and antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2009;45(6):1520–30.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017417.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Van Ryzin MJ, Fosco GM, Dishion TJ. Family and peer predictors of substance use from early adolescence to early adulthood: an 11-year prospective analysis. Addict Behav. 2012;37(12):1314–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.06.020.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pesola F, Shelton KH, Heron J, Munafo M, Hickman M, van den Bree MB. The developmental relationship between depressive symptoms in adolescence and harmful drinking in emerging adulthood: the role of peers and parents. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44(9):1752–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0295-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Handren LM, Donaldson CD, Crano WD. Adolescent alcohol use: protective and predictive parent, peer, and self-related factors. Prev Sci. 2016;17(7):862–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-016-0695-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kendler KS, Ohlsson H, Sundquist K, Sundquist J. Within-family environmental transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish national study. JAMA Psychiat. 2013;70(2):235–42.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Osgood DW, Ragan DT, Wallace L, Gest SD, Feinberg ME, Moody J. Peers and the emergence of alcohol use: influence and selection processes in adolescent friendship networks. J Res Adolesc. 2013;23(3):500–12.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brechwald WA, Prinstein MJ. Beyond homophily: a decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. J Adolesc Res. 2011;21(1):166–79.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00721.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Light JM, Greenan CC, Rusby JC, Nies KM, Snijders TAB. Onset to first alcohol use in early adolescence: a network diffusion model. J Res Adolesc. 2013;23(3):487–99.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12064.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Patrick ME, Schulenberg JE. Alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking prevalence and predictors among national samples of American eighth-and tenth-grade students. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2010;71(1):41–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Guttmannova K, Bailey JA, Hill KG, Lee JO, Hawkins DJ, Woods ML, Catalano RF. Sensitive periods for adolescent alcohol use initiation: predicting the lifetime occurrence and chronicity of alcohol problems in adulthood. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2011;72(2):221–31.  https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2011.72.221.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McGue M, Iacono WG, Legrand LN, Elkins I. Origins and consequences of age at first drink. II. Familial risk and heritability. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;25(8):1166–73.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2001.tb02330.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schmits E, Mathys C, Quertemont E. A longitudinal study of cannabis use initiation among high school students: effects of social anxiety, expectancies, peers and alcohol. J Adolesc. 2015;41:43–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.02.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pollard MS, Tucker JS, Green HD, de la Haye K, Espelage DL. Adolescent peer networks and the moderating role of depressive symptoms on developmental trajectories of cannabis use. Addict Behav. 2018;76:34–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Maxwell KA. Friends: the role of peer influence across adolescent risk behaviors. J Youth Adolesc. 2002;31(4):267–77.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015493316865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Steinberg L, Fletcher A, Darling N. Parental monitoring and peer influences on adolescent substance use. Pediatrics. 1994;93(6):1060–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kumar R, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD, Schulenberg JE, Bachman JG. Effects of school-level norms on student substance use. Prev Sci. 2002;3(2):105–24.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015431300471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mason MJ, Mennis J, Linker J, Bares C, Zaharakis N. Peer attitudes effects on adolescent substance use: the moderating role of race and gender. Prev Sci. 2013;15(1):56–64.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0353-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dishion TJ, Spracklen KM, Andrews DW, Patterson GR. Deviancy training in male adolescent friendships. Behav Ther. 1996;27(3):373–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80023-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dishion TJ, Nelson SE, Kavanagh K. The family check-up with high-risk young adolescents: preventing early-onset substance use by parent monitoring. Behav Ther. 2003;34(4):553–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(03)80035-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Van Ryzin MJ, Dishion TJ. From antisocial behavior to violence: a model for the amplifying role of coercive joining in adolescent friendships. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54(6):661–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Patterson GR. Coercion theory. The study of change. In: Dishion TJ, Snyder JJ, editors. Oxford handbook of coercive relationship dynamics. New York: Oxford University Press; 2016. p. 7–22.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dishion TJ, Ha T, Véronneau MH. An ecological analysis of the effects of deviant peer clustering on sexual promiscuity, problem behavior, and childbearing from early adolescence to adulthood: an enhancement of the life history framework. Dev Psychol. 2012;48(3):703–17.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027304.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rhodes N, Ewoldsen DR, Shen L, Monahan JL, Eno C. The accessibility of family and peer norms in young adolescent risk behavior. Commun Res. 2014;41(1):3–26.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650211429118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Potard C, Courtois R, Rusch E. The influence of peers on risky sexual behavior during adolescence. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2008;13(3):264–70.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13625180802273530.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fatusi AO, Bello B. Social determinants of health in adolescents and young women’s health and nutrition: current evidence. In: Bhutta ZA, Makrides M, Prentice AM, editors. Health and nutrition in adolescents and young women: preparing for the next generation. 80th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop; 2013 November 26-29; Bali, vol. 80. Basel: Karger; 2015. p. 61–9.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chung SJ, Ersig AL, McCarthy AM. The influence of peers on diet and exercise among adolescents: a systematic review. J Pediatr Nurs. 2017;36:44–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2017.04.010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Salvy SJ, de la Haye K, Bowker JC, Hermans RCJ. Influence of peers and friends on children’s and adolescents’ eating and activity behaviors. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(3):369–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.03.022.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Halliday TJ, Kwak S. Weight gain in adolescents and their peers. Econ Hum Biol. 2009;7(2):181–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2009.05.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gilbert N, Meyer C. Fear of negative evaluation and the development of eating psychopathology. A longitudinal study among nonclinical women. Int J Eat Disord. 2005;37(4):307–12.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20105.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schutz HK, Paxton SJ. Friendship quality, body dissatisfaction, dieting and disordered eating in adolescent girls. Br J Clin Psychol. 2007;46(1):67–83.  https://doi.org/10.1348/014466506X115993.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Laghi F, Baiocco R, Ghezzi E, Cacioppo M. Funzionamento familiare e disturbi del comportamento alimentare in adolescenza [Family functioning and eating disorders in adolescence]. Counseling. 2012;5(19):55–69. Italian.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Thompson KA, Kelly NR, Schvey NA, Brady SM, Courville AB, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA, Shomaker LB. Internalization of appearance ideals mediates the relationship between appearance-related pressures from peers and emotional eating among adolescent boys and girls. Eat Behav. 2017;24:66–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.12.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pérez-Fuentes MC, Gázquez JJ. Variables relacionadas con la conducta violent en la escuela según los estudiantes [Variables related to violent behavior at school according to students]. Rev IntPsicolTerPsicol. 2010;10:427–37. Spanish.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Méndez I, Ruiz-Esteban C, López-García JJ. Risk and protective factors associated to peer school victimization. Front Psychol. 2017;8:441.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00441.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hasking P, Andrews T, Martin G. The role of exposure to self-injury among peers in predicting later self-injury. J Youth Adolesc. 2013;42(10):1543–56.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-9931-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Prinstein MJ, Heilbron N, Guerry JD, Franklin JC, Rancourt D, Simon V, Spirito A. Peer influence and nonsuicidal self injury: longitudinal results in community and clinically-referred adolescent samples. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38(5):669–82.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9423-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Prinstein MJ. Moderators of peer contagion: a longitudinal examination of depression socialization between adolescents and their best friends. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2007;36(2):159–70.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701274934.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Van Zalk MHW, Kerr M, Branje SJT, Stattin H, Meeus WHJ. It takes three: selection, influence, and de-selection processes of depression in adolescent friendship networks. Dev Psychol. 2010;46(4):927–38.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019661.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gosling SD, Augustine AA, Vazire S, Holtzman N, Gaddis S. Manifestations of personality in online social networks: self-reported Facebook-related behaviors and observable profile information. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2011;14(9):483–8.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0087.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nadkarni A, Hofmann SG. Why do people use Facebook? Personal Individ Differ. 2012;52(3):243–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Riva G. I social network. Bologna: Il Mulino; 2010. Italian.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ellison NB, Steinfield C, Lampe C. The benefits of Facebook friends: social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. J Comput-Mediat Commun. 2007;12(4):1143–68.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Boyd D. It’s complicated. La vita sociale degli adolescenti del web. Roma: Castelvecchi; 2014. Italian.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Peluchette J, Karl K. Examining students’ intended image on Facebook: “what were they thinking?!”. J Educ Bus. 2010;85(1):30–7.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08832320903217606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ahn J. Digital divides and social network sites: which students participate in social media? J Educ Comput Res. 2011;45(2):147–63.  https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.45.2.b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Catania D. Neuroscienze e web 2.0. Orientamenti Pedagogici. 2012;59(4):673–81. Italian.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Manago AM, Taylor T, Greenfield PM. Me and my 400 friends: the anatomy of college students’ Facebook networks, their communication patterns, and well-being. Dev Psychol. 2012;48(2):369–80.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026338.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pasqualetti F. Web 2.0 Educazione e comunicazione, ovvero quando i pesci sono felici di stare nella rete. Orientamenti Pedagogici. 2012;59(4):625–54. Italian.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Van Der Heide B, D’Angelo JD, Schumaker EM. The effects of verbal versus photographic self-presentation on impression formation in Facebook. J Commun. 2012;62(1):98–116.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01617.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Seidman G. Self-presentation and belonging on Facebook: how personality influences social media use and motivations. Personal Individ Differ. 2013;54(3):402–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.10.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Internet World Stats. World internet usage statistic news and world population stats. 2018. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Accessed 28 Sep 2018.
  98. 98.
    Tonioni F, Corvino S. Dipendenza da Internet e psicopatologia web-mediata. Recenti Prog Med. 2011;102(11):417–20. Italian.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ciaschini U. Dipendenze da sostanze e dipendenze web-mediate in adolescenza. In: Bronzini M, Ciaschini U, Moretti C, editors. Disagio e dipendenza nell’adolescenza. Una ricerca nelle scuole marchigiane: riflessioni e prospettive. Milano: Franco Angeli; 2017. p. 11–50.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rutter M. Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. Am J Orthop. 1987;57(3):316–31.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1987.tb03541.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bonino S, Cattelino E, Ciairano S. Adolescenti e rischio. Comportamenti, funzioni e fattori di protezione. Firenze: Giunti; 2003. Italian.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dodge KA, Dishion TJ, Lansford JE, editors. Deviant peer influences in programs for youth: problems and solutions. New York: Guilford Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ferguson CJ. Evidence for publication bias in video game violence effects literature: a meta-analytic review. Aggress Violent Behav. 2007;12(4):470–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2007.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Logis HA, Rodkin PC, Gest SD, Ahn H. Popularity as an organizing factor of preadolescent friendship networks: beyond prosocial and aggressive behavior. J Res Adolesc. 2013;23(3):413–23.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    van Hoorn J, van Dijk E, Meuwese R, Crone EA. Peer influence on prosocial behavior in adolescence. J Res Adolesc. 2014;26(1):90–100.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bandura A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hill; 1977.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Steele JR, Brown JD. Adolescent room culture: studying media in the context of everyday life. J Youth Adolesc. 1995;24(5):551–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Limone P, editor. Nuovi media e formazione. Roma: Armando; 2007. Italian.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Milani M. Adolescenti in Facebook tra narcisismo e empatia. Media Educ. 2014;5(1):36–56. Italian.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Litt DM, Stock ML. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites. Psychol Addict Behav. 2011;25(4):708–13.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024226.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Moreno MA, Whitehill JM. Influence of social media on alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. Alcohol Res. 2014;36(1):91–100.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Brown JD, Keller S, Stern S. Sex, sexuality, sexting, and sexed: adolescents and the media. Prev Res. 2009;16(4):12–6.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Facci M. Le reti nella rete: i pericoli di internet dal cyberbullismo alle sette pro-ana. Trento: Erickson; 2010. Italian.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Formella Z, Ricci A. Il disagio adolescenziale: tra aggressività, bullismo e cyberbullismo. Roma: LAS; 2010. Italian.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pira F. Cyberbullismo, sexiting, “ragazze doccia”. I nuovi pericoli per i più piccoli nella rete. Humanities. 2014;6:73–90.  https://doi.org/10.6092/2240-7715/2014.2.73-90. Italian.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lavenia G. Internet e le sue dipendenze: dal coinvolgimento alla psicopatologia. Milano: Franco Angeli; 2012. Italian.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Teo AR. Social isolation associated with depression: a case report of hikikomori. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2013;59(4):339–41.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764012437128.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Williams AL, Merten MJ. A review of online social networking profiles by adolescents: implications for future research and intervention. Adolescence. 2008;43(170):253–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Neiger BL, Thackeray R, Van Wagenen SA, Hanson CL, West JH, Barnes MD, Fagen MC. Use of social media in health promotion. Purposes, key performance indicators, and evaluation metrics. Health Promot Pract. 2012;13(2):159–64.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839911433467.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Cattelino E, Calandri M, Bina M, Graziano F. Fattori di protezione nei confronti dei pari devianti in adolescenza. G Psicol Svilupp. 2011;98:104–14. Italian.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Engels RC, Knibbe RA, Drop MJ, de Haan YT. Homogeneity of cigarette smoking within peer groups: influence or selection? Health Educ Behav. 1997;24(6):801–11.  https://doi.org/10.1177/109019819702400613.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cicognani E. Comportamenti a rischio in adolescenza e contesti relazionali: famiglia, gruppo dei pari e comunità. Psicol Salute. 2004;3:9–22. Italian.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bonino S, Cattelino E, Ciairano S. Adolescenti e rischio. Firenze: Giunti; 2003. Italian.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Huebener AJ, Howell LW. Examining the relationship between adolescent sexual risk-taking and perception of monitoring, communication, and parenting styles. J Adolesc Health. 2003;33(2):71–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(03)00141-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Li X, Stanton B, Feigelman S. Impact of perceived parental monitoring on adolescent risk behavior over 4 years. J Adolesc Health. 2000;27(1):49–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00092-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Simons-Morton B, Chen R. Latent growth curve analysis of parent influences on drinking progression among early adolescent. J Stud Alcohol. 2005;66(1):5–13.  https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.2005.66.5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Stattin H, Kerr M. Parental monitoring: a reinterpretation. Child Dev. 2000;71(4):1072–85.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00210.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Tomé G, de Matos MG, Simões C, Camacho I, Alves Diniz J. How can peer group influence the behavior of adolescent: explanatory model. Global J Health Sci. 2012;4(2):26–35.  https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v4n2p26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bonino S, Cattelino E, editors. La prevenzione in adolescenza. Percorsi psicoeducativi di intervento sul rischio e la salute. Trento: Erikson; 2008. Italian.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jessor R, Van Den Bos J, Vanderryn J, Costa F, Turbin MS. Protective factors in adolescent problem behaviour: moderator effect and developmental change. Dev Psychol. 1995;31(6):923–33.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.6.923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mirman JH, Curry AE. Racing with friends: resistance to peer influence, gist and specific risk beliefs. Accid Anal Prev. 2016;96:180–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.08.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Glaser B, Shelton HK, Bree M. The moderating role of close friends in the relationship between conduct problems and adolescent substance use. J Adolesc Health. 2010;47(1):35–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.12.022.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Sinha JW, Cnaan RA, Gelles RJ. Adolescent risk behavior and religion: finding from a national study. J Adolesc. 2007;30(2):231–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.02.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Cattelino E, Glowacz F, Born M, Testa S, Bina M, Calandri E. Adolescent risk behaviours and protective factors against peer influence. J Adolesc. 2014;37(8):1353–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.09.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Turbin MS, Jessor R, Costa FM, Dong Q, Zhang H, Wang C. Protective and risk factors in health-enhancing behavior among adolescents in China and the United States: does social context matter? Health Psychol. 2006;25(4):445–54.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.25.4.445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Caprara CV, Scabini E, Steca P, Schwartz SH, editors. I valori nell’Italia contemporanea. Milano: Franco Angeli; 2011. Italian.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Becciu M, Colasanti AR, editors. In viaggio per crescere. Un manuale di auto-mutuo aiuto per gli adolescenti: per potenziare le proprie risorse e star bene con se e con gli altri. Milano: Franco Angeli; 2010. Italian.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Becciu M, Colasanti AR. La promozione del benessere in adolescenza. Presentazione di un percorso di auto-mutuo aiuto. Orientamenti Pedagogici. 2010;57(2):225–34. Italian.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Van der Kreeft P, Wiborg G, Galanti MR, Siliquini R, Bohrn K, Scatigna M, Lindahl AM, Juan JC, Vassara M, Faggiano F, The EU-DAP Study Group. ‘Unplugged’: a new European school programme against substance abuse. Drugs. 2009;16(2):167–81.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09687630701731189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Botvin GJ, Baker E, Renick NL, Filazzola AD, Botvin EM. A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Addict Behav. 1984;9(2):137–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603(84)90051-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Tortu S, Botvin EM. Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive behavioral approach: results of a 3 year study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1990;58(4):437–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sciacca JP. Student peer health education: a powerful yet inexpensive helping strategy. The Peer Facil Q. 1987;5:4–6.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pellai A, Rinaldin V, Tamborini B. Educazione tra pari. Manuale teorico-pratico di empowered peer education. Trento: Erickson; 2003. Italian.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cornish F, Campbell C. The social conditions for successful peer education: a comparison of two HIV prevention programs run by sex workers in India and South Africa. Am J Community Psychol. 2009;44(1-2):123–35.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9254-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Timol F, Vawda MY, Bhana A, Moolman B, Makoae M, Swartz S. Addressing adolescents’ risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape. SAHARA J. 2016;13(1):197–207.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17290376.2016.1241188.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Definizione di obiettivi e soluzioni di problemi. Manuale di mutuo autoaiuto per la promozione della salute mentale, del benessere psicologico e dell’intelligenza emotiva nella scuola. Roma: Centro Stampa e Vittoria; 2010. Italian.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Faggiano F, Minozzi S, Versino E, Buscemi D. Universal school-based prevention for illicit drug use (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD003020.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    World Health Organization. Division of Mental Health. Life skills education for children and adolescents in schools. Pt. 1, Introduction to life skills for psychosocial competence. Pt. 2, Guidelines to facilitate the development and implementation of life skills programmes, 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Preventing Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. A research-based guide for parents, educators, and community leaders. 2nd ed. Bethesda: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2003.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA). Building on our strengths: Canadian standards for school-based youth substance abuse prevention (version 2.0). Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse; 2010.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Griebler U, Rojatz D, Simovska V, Forster R. Effects of student participation in school health promotion: a systematic review. Health Promot Int. 2017;32(2):195–206.  https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dat090.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    United Nation Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODCCP). School-based drug education: a guide for practitioners and the wider community. UNODCCP; 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Pozzi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mario Becciu
    • 2
  • Anna Rita Colasanti
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento Delle DipendenzeAAS 5 “Friuli Occidentale”PordenoneItaly
  2. 2.Università Pontificia Salesiana Di RomaRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations