Assessment of Pentelic Marble Surfaces After Ammonium Oxalate Protective Treatments

  • I. Ntoutsi
  • G. Frantzi
  • E. T. Delegou
  • P. Tsakiridis
  • G. Fourlaris
  • A. MoropoulouEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Materials book series (SPM)


The artificial oxalate method has been thoroughly studied over the last decades as a compatible and performing protective treatment for marbles and other calcite stones. In this study, the most widely used synthesis (5% w/v ammonium oxalate aqueous solution) was applied by brushing on pentelic marble surfaces and assessed in terms of surface texture alterations. Three differently textured marble surfaces were produced in terms of roughness levels, and were measured by a mechanical roughness meter. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) proved to be an indispensable tool in order to investigate the morphological alterations of the process through the comparison of the original surface texture with the one induced by the conversion of calcite into calcium oxalate. The calcium oxalate formation was verified by Raman spectroscopy, where whewellite was clearly detected. Finally, the digital imaging processing of the SEM images served as an indicative tool for the quantification of the process, regarding the surface percentage that is covered by the newly formed calcium oxalate.


Raman SEM Calcium oxalate Protection Stone Pentelic marble 



The authors declare that no funding was received, while performing the research presented in this paper. This research was performed at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and it is part of the Master Thesis of G. Frantzi, who is employed by the Acropolis Restoration Service (YSMA).

Competing Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Availability of Data and Materials

Available upon request by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Ntoutsi
    • 1
  • G. Frantzi
    • 2
  • E. T. Delegou
    • 1
  • P. Tsakiridis
    • 3
  • G. Fourlaris
    • 3
  • A. Moropoulou
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Acropolis Restoration Service (YSMA)Hellenic Ministry of Culture and SportsAthensGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

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