Electronic Oscillator Fundamentals

  • Amal Banerjee


This chapter provides a brief overview of traditional oscillator theory, which has been examined in minute detail in available text and specialized electronic engineering books, as well as numerous conference and journal papers. The main focus is on the S parameter (small, large signal)-free electronic oscillator design and performance evaluation scheme. It starts with examination of the loop equations, open- and closed-loop gain, and Barkhausen and Nyquist criteria. Next, the concept of negative resistance and its application to oscillators is examined, followed by detailed enumeration of common emitter feedback, common-base feedback, common-emitter negative resistance, and differential oscillator design equations and steps. The chapter also examines in detail main oscillator noise problem, phase noise, starting with the key concepts, followed by the linear Leeson’s noise model, its drawbacks, and various modifications to include the nonlinearities of an oscillator. The discrete Fourier transform, the key tool to analyze oscillator output in the frequency domain (using the oscillator output’s power spectrum), is also examined in detail.


Barkhausen condition Nyquist stability condition Loop gain Loop equation Positive feedback Quality factor Phase shift Common emitter feedback oscillator Common-base feedback oscillator Common-emitter negative resistance oscillator Common-base negative resistance oscillator Differential oscillator Small and large signal S parameter Single-stage oscillator Discrete Fourier transform Power spectrum Power spectral density Phase noise, Leeson’s linear-phase noise model Single side band Phase noise 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amal Banerjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Analog ElectronicsKolkataIndia

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