Advertisement

Basic Needs, Resilience, and General Principles in Counseling

  • Marcel SchaerEmail author
  • Imke Knafla
Chapter

Abstract

Even though basic needs are independent of cultures and development stages, there are clear inter-individual differences in how they can be fulfilled. Thus, while basic needs are universal, the ways in which people seek to satisfy them are highly personal. In the course of their development, people amass the most diverse experiences as to the strategies for fulfilling these basic needs (approach) and for avoiding harm (avoidance). When adolescents succeed in satisfying their basic needs, these positive experiences result in positive assumptions about themselves, their environment, and their future. However, these strategies are not always successful. The environment can change, for instance, confronting the adolescent with a new situation where the old strategies and patterns are no longer effective. It is important for the psychological health of adolescents how much they persevere in finding new ways to fulfill their basic needs and how they succeed in fulfilling them. Professional psychological support can encourage and support adolescents to achieve this goal in a better way and help them to grow towards greater resilience. In addition, we illustrate which factors are important for providing adolescents with effective support in counseling and psychotherapy.

Keywords

Psychological needs Approach patterns Avoidance patterns Common factors Therapeutic relationship 

References

  1. Abualkibash, S. K. A., & Lera, M. J. (2015). Psychological resilience among Palestinian school students: An exploratory study in the West Bank. International Humanities Studies, 2, 1–20.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, A. (1920). Praxis und Theorie der Individualpsychologie. Vorträge zur Einführung in die Psychotherapie für Ärzte, Psychologen und Lehrer. München: Bergmann.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beardslee, W. R. (2009). Hoffnung, Sinn und Kontinuität. Ein Programm für Familien depressiv erkrankter Eltern. Fortschritte der Gemeindepsychologie und Gesundheitsförderung (Vol. 19). Tübingen: DGVT.Google Scholar
  5. Berk, L. E. (2011). Entwicklungspsychologie. München: Pearson Studium.Google Scholar
  6. Brazelton, T. B., & Greenspan, S. I. (2002). Die sieben Grundbedürfnisse von Kindern. Was jedes Kind braucht, um gesund aufzuwachsen, gut zu lernen und glücklich zu sein. Weinheim: Beltz.Google Scholar
  7. Constantino, M. J., Ametrano, R. M., & Greenberg, R. P. (2012). Clinician interventions and participant characteristics that foster adaptive patient expectations for psychotherapy and psychotherapeutic change. Psychotherapy, 49(4), 557–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Botton, A. (2001). Trost der Philosophie. Eine Gebrauchsanweisung. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer.Google Scholar
  9. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  11. Epstein, S. (1990). Cognitive-experiential Self-theory. In L. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality theory and research: Theory and research (pp. 165–192). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  12. Finke, J. (2004). Gesprächspsychotherapie (3rd ed.). Stuttgart: Thieme.Google Scholar
  13. Frank, J. D. (1997). Die Heiler. Wirkungsweise psychotherapeutischer Beeinflussung (2nd ed.). Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.Google Scholar
  14. Frank, J. D., & Frank, J. B. (1991). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Goldfried, M. R. (2013). What should we expect from psychotherapy? Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 862–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grawe, K. (2004). Neuropsychotherapie. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  17. Grawe, K., Donati, R., & Bernauer, F. (1994). Psychotherapie im Wandel. Von der Konfession zur Profession. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  18. Grosse Holtforth, M., & Grawe, K. (2004). Inkongruenz und Fallkonzeption in der Psychologischen Therapie. Verhaltenstherapie und Psychosoziale Praxis, 36, 9–21.Google Scholar
  19. Heckhausen, J., & Heckhausen, H. (2010). Motivation und Handeln. Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaydkhorde, H., Moltafet, G., & Chinaveh, M. (2014). Relationship between satisfying psychological needs and resilience in high-school students in Dezful town. Academic Journal of Psychological Studies, 3(1), 57–62.Google Scholar
  21. Knafla, I., Schaer, M., & Steinebach, C. (2017). Jugendliche stärken. Wirkfaktoren in Beratung und Therapie. Weinheim: Beltz.Google Scholar
  22. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation und Persönlichkeit. Reinbek: Rowohlt.Google Scholar
  23. Orlinsky, D. E., Grawe, K., & Parks, B. K. (1994). Process and outcome in psychotherapy. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed., pp. 270–376). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  24. Orlinsky, D., Roennestadt, M. H., & Willutzki, U. (2004). Fifty years of psychotherapy process-outcome research: Continuity and change. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 307–390). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: Guilford Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Rogers, C. R. (2004). Entwicklung der Persönlichkeit (15th ed.). Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.Google Scholar
  27. Rosenzweig, S. (1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 412–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (609).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sachse, R. (1999). Lehrbuch der Gesprächspsychotherapie. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  30. Schär, M. (2016). Paarberatung und Paartherapie - Partnerschaft zwischen Problemen und Ressource. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Schär, M., & Steinebach, C. (2015). Resilienzfördernde Psychotherapie bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und Familien: Erfüllte Grundbedürfnisse als Ressource. Weinheim: Beltz.Google Scholar
  32. Walter, J. L., & Peller, J. E. (1992). Become solution-focused in brief therapy. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  33. Wampold, B. E., & Budge, S. L. (2011). The 2011 Leona Tyler award address: The relationship—And its relationship to the common and specific factors of psychotherapy. The Counseling Psychologist, 40(4), 601–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wampold, B. E., & Imel, Z. E. (2015). The great psychotherapy debate: Research evidence for what works in psychotherapy (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2008). Schematherapie. Ein praxisorientiertes Handbuch. Paderborn: Junfermann.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Applied Psychology, ZHAW Zürich University of Applied SciencesZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations