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Fungal Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Resources: Current Scenario and Future Prospects

  • Amit Kumar
  • Ashish K. Chaturvedi
  • Kritika Yadav
  • K. P. Arunkumar
  • Sandeep K. Malyan
  • P. Raja
  • Ram Kumar
  • Shakeel Ahmad Khan
  • Krishna Kumar Yadav
  • Kusam Lata Rana
  • Divjot Kour
  • Neelam Yadav
  • Ajar Nath Yadav
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As, Se, etc.) contaminations in fertile soils and fresh water are one of the worldwide growing issues along with the modernization of the life style. Contamination in natural resources due to heavy metals is a serious threat to sustainability of ecosystems and human life. A special urge is needed to restore the natural resources in its natural state. Based on the contamination type, various site-specific physical, chemical, and biological bioremediation strategies could be applied. However, the major limitation of physicochemical approaches is its higher cost and relatively low competence. Conversely, the biotic action of contaminated environment is slightly economical and ecologically attractive alternative to the present physicochemical methods of treatment. Among different bioremediation techniques, phytoremediation and mycoremediation are having its merit of eco-friendliness. Microorganisms play an important role in heavy metal bioremediation from contaminated resources attributed to its easy operation, without any secondary pollution and showing higher efficiency at low metal concentrations. Mycoremediation is the utilization of fungi for remediation of the contaminated natural resources. Unlike bacteria, the fungal phytoremediation does not require absolute water phase as fungus can grow of air-water interface. The pH, moisture, substrate, and species specificity are the important factors which highly influence the fungal phytoremediation. This chapter mainly emphasizes the detailed mechanism of fungal phytoremediation. Some potential species are provided for abatement of heavy metals from contaminated water and soil. The heavy metals toxicity, stress response and their impact on humans as well as on plants are described in brief. Further, it also highlights the utilization efficiency of fungal phytoremediation for sustainable removal of toxic heavy metals from contaminated natural soil and water resources.

Keywords

Contaminants Fungi Heavy metals Fungal phytoremediation Water 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Prof. Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal, Vice Chancellor, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India, for providing infrastructural facilities and constant encouragement.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Kumar
    • 1
  • Ashish K. Chaturvedi
    • 3
  • Kritika Yadav
    • 4
  • K. P. Arunkumar
    • 2
  • Sandeep K. Malyan
    • 5
  • P. Raja
    • 6
  • Ram Kumar
    • 7
  • Shakeel Ahmad Khan
    • 7
  • Krishna Kumar Yadav
    • 8
  • Kusam Lata Rana
    • 9
  • Divjot Kour
    • 9
  • Neelam Yadav
    • 9
  • Ajar Nath Yadav
    • 9
  1. 1.Host Plant SectionCentral Muga Eri Research & Training Institute, Central Silk Board, LahdoigarhJorhatIndia
  2. 2.Central Muga Eri Research and Training Institute, Central Silk BoardJorhatIndia
  3. 3.Water Management (Agriculture) DivisionCentre for Water Resources Development and ManagementKozhikodeIndia
  4. 4.Department of BotanyDayalbagh Educational InstituteAgraIndia
  5. 5.Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani CenterRishon LeZionIsrael
  6. 6.ICAR-IISWC, Regional CentreOotyIndia
  7. 7.Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient AgricultureICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  8. 8.Institute of Environment and Development Studies, Bundelkhand UniversityJhansiIndia
  9. 9.Department of BiotechnologyAkal College of Agriculture, Eternal University, Baru SahibSirmourIndia

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