Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi-Mediated Mycoremediation of Saline Soil: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

  • Dileep Kumar
  • Priyanka Priyanka
  • Pramendra Yadav
  • Anurag Yadav
  • Kusum Yadav
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Soil salinization is one of the major causes of declining agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, which is continuously increasing due to water evaporation and the use of saline water for irrigation. According to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), it is estimated that approximately 20% of agricultural land and 50% of cropland in the world is facing salt stress. The continuous increase in soil salinity and increased demand for feeding rapidly increasing world population has created some serious agricultural issues that need a solution. Such solutions demand remediation of arable lands. For soil salinity, remediation of the development of salt-tolerating plant varieties was tried out, but its land-specific implementation and variety development is not suitable for developing countries. The mycoremediation could be used as a low-cost alternative for such countries in which a group of fungi called arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) is used. The AMF creates a symbiotic association with plant and assists to cope with soil salinity. It was observed that stress-adaptive mechanisms developed by plants are improved by AMF application. This chapter emphasizes the significance of mycoremediation on salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Many positive effects of AMF application show improved host plant nutrition; higher K+/Na+ ratio in plant tissues; and better osmotic adjustment by the accumulation of compatible solutes such as proline, glycine betaine, and soluble sugars. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants show improved photosynthesis and water use efficiency under salt stress. The AM plants also enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes to reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the salinity. The AM symbiosis regulates the expression of the proline biosynthesis genes, late embryogenesis abundant protein genes, and aquaporins genes. Thus, it can be said that AMF symbiosis assists in host plants in the amelioration of salt stress at different levels.


Abiotic stress Aquaporin Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Cation antiporter Salinity Stress tolerance 


  1. Abraham E, Rigo G, Szekely G, Nagy R, Koncz C, Szabados L (2003) Light-dependent induction of proline biosynthesis by abscisic acid and salt stress is inhibited by brassinosteroid in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 51:363–372 Google Scholar
  2. Adiku G, Renger M, Wessolek G, Facklam M, Hech-Bischoltz C (2001) Simulation of dry matter production and seed yield of common beans under varying soil water and salinity conditions. Agric Water Manag 47:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Garni S (2006) Increasing NaCl-salt tolerance of a halophytic plant Phragmites australis by mycorrhizal symbiosis. American-Eurasian J Agri Environ Sci 1:119–126Google Scholar
  4. Alguacil MM, Hernandez JA, Caravaca F, Portillo B, Roldan A (2003) Antioxidant enzyme activities in shoots from three mycorrhizal shrub species afforested in a degraded semi-arid soil. Physiol Plant 118:562–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aliasgharzadeh N, Rastin NS, Towfighi H, Alizadeh A (2001) Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline soils of the Tabriz Plain of Iran in relation to some physical and chemical properties of soil. Mycorrhiza 11:119–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Karaki GN (2000) Growth of mycorrhizal tomato and mineral acquisition under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 10:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Karaki GN (2006) Nursery inoculation of tomato with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and subsequent performance under irrigation with saline water. Sci Hortic 109:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen JW, Shachar-Hill Y (2009) Sulfur transfer through and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Plant Physiol 149:549–560PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andrea B, Erica L, Raffaella B, Valeria B (2016) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungias natural biofertilizers: let’s benefit from past successes. Front Microbiol 6:1559–1572Google Scholar
  10. Aroca R, Ferrante A, Vernieri P, Chrispeels MJ (2006) Drought, abscisic acid and transpiration rate effects on the regulation of PIP aquaporin gene expression and abundance in Phaseolus vulgaris plants. Ann Bot 98:1301–1310PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aroca R, Porcel R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2007) How does arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulate root hydraulic properties and plasma membrane aquaporins in Phaseolus vulgaris under drought, cold or salinity stresses? New Phytol 173:808–816PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Ashraf M, Hasnain S, Berge O, Mahmood T (2004) Inoculating wheat seedlings with exo polysaccharide producing bacteria restricts sodium uptake and stimulates plant growth under salt stress. Biol Fertil Soils 40:157–162Google Scholar
  13. Atakan A, Ozgonen H, Erdogan O (2018) Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) on heavy metal and salt stress. Turkish JAF Sci Tech 6:1569–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Augé RM (2000) Stomatal behaviour of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. In: Kapulnik Y, Douds DD (eds) Arbuscular mycorrhizas: Physiology and functions. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 201–237Google Scholar
  15. Auge RM (2001) Water relations, drought and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza 11:3–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Azcon-Aguilar C, Barea JM (1997) Applying mycorrhiza biotechnology to horticulture: significance and potentials. Sci Hortic 68:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Azcon-Aguilar C, Azcon R, Barea JM (1979) Endomycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium as biological fertilizers for Medicago sativa in normal cultivation. Nature 279:325–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Babu RC, Zhang JX, Blum A, Ho THD, Wu R, Nguyen HT (2004) HVA1, a LEA gene from barley confers dehydration tolerance in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) via cell membrane protection. Plant Sci 166:855–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bago B (2000) Putative sites for nutrient uptake in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 226:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bago B, Zipfel W, Williams RM, Jun J, Arreola R, Lammers PJ, Pfeffer PE, Shachar-Hill Y (2002) Translocation and utilization of fungal storage lipids in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant Physiol 128:108–124PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Besford RT, Richardson CM, Campos JL, Tiburcio AF (1993) Effect of polyamines on stabilization of molecular complexes in thylakoid membranes of osmotically stressed oat leaves. Planta 189:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bienert GP, Desiree-Bienert M, Jahn TP, Boutry M, Chaumont F (2011) Solanaceae XIPs are plasma membrane aquaporins that facilitate the transport of many uncharged substrates. Plant J 66:306–317PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Bohnert HJ, Jensen RG (1996) Strategies for engineering water–stress tolerance in plants. Trends Biotechnol 14:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Borsics T, Webb D, Andeme-Ondzighi C, Staehelin LA, Christopher DA (2007) The cyclic nucleotide-gated calmodulin-binding channel AtCNGC10 localizes to the plasma membrane and influences numerous growth responses and starch accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta 225:563–573PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Bowler C, Van Montagu MV, Inze D (1992) Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:83–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Breuninger M, Requena N (2004) Recognition events in AM symbiosis: analysis of fungal gene expression at the early aspersorium stage. Fungal Genet Biol 41:794–804PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Brundrett M, Kendrick B (1990) The roots and mycorrhizas of herbaceous woodland plants: I. Quantitative aspects of morphology. New Phytol 114:457–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cano C, Bago A (2005) Competition and substrate colonization strategies of three polyxenically grown arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia 97:1201–1214Google Scholar
  29. Cantrell IC, Linderman RG (2001) Pre-inoculation of lettuce and onion with VA mycorrhizal fungi reduces deleterious effects of soil salinity. Plant Soil 233:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Caris C, Hordt W, Hawkins HJ, Romheld V, George E (1998) Studies of iron transport by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae from soil to peanut and sorghum plants. Mycorrhiza 8:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carvalho LM, Cacador I, Martins-Loucao MA (2001) Temporal and spatial variation of arbuscular mycorrhizas in salt marsh plants of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). Mycorrhiza 11:303–309PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Cavagnaro TR, Gao LL, Smith FA, Smith SE (2001) Morphology of arbuscular mycorrhizas is influenced by fungal identity. New Phytol 151:469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen C, Dickman MB (2005) Proline suppresses apoptosis in the fungal pathogen. Colletotrichum trifolii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:3459–3464PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chen BD, Christie P, Li XL (2001) A modified glass bead compartment cultivation system for studies on nutrient and trace metal uptake by arbuscular mycorrhiza. Chemosphere 42:185–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A, Zhu JK (2005) Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci 45:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cho K, Toler H, Lee J, Owenley B, Stutz JC, Moore JL, Auge RM (2006) Mycorrhizal symbiosis and response of sorghum plants to combined drought and salinity stresses. J Plant Physiol 163:517–528PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Close T (1996) Dehydrins: emergence of a biochemical role of a family of plant dehydration proteins. Physiol Plant 97:795–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Colla G, Rouphael Y, Cardarelli M, Tullio M, Rivera CM, Rea E (2008) Alleviation of salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhizal in zucchini plants grown at low and high phosphorus concentration. Biol Fertil Soils 44:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Compant S, van der Heijden MG, Sessitsch A (2010) Climate change effects on beneficial plant–microorganism interactions. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 73:197–214PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Copeman RH, Martin CA, Stutz JC (1996) Tomato growth in response to salinity and mycorrhizal fungi from saline or non-saline soils. Hortic Sci 31:341–344Google Scholar
  41. Couee I, Hummel I, Sulmon C, Gowsbet G, El Armani A (2004) Involvement of polyamines in root development. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 76:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Croll D, Giovannetti M, Koch AM, Sbrana C, Ehinger M, Lammers PJ, Sanders IR (2009) Non-self vegetative fusion and genetic exchange in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. New Phytol 181:924–937PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Cusido RM, Palazon J, Altobella T, Morales C (1987) Effect of salinity on soluble protein, free amino acids and nicotine contents in Nicotiana rustica L. Plant Soil 102:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Souza FA, Declerck S (2003) Mycelium development and architecture, and spore production of Scutellospora reticulata in monoxenic culture with Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots. Mycologia 95:1004–1012PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Delauney AJ, Verma DPS (1993) Proline biosynthesis and osmoregulation in plants. Plant J 4:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Delgado MJ, Ligero F, Lluch C (1994) Effects of salt stress on growth and nitrogen fixation by pea, faba-bean, common bean, and soybean plants. Soil Biol Biochem 26:371–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Donaldson L, Ludidi N, Knight MR, Gehring C, Denby K (2004) Salt and osmotic stress cause rapid increases in Arabidopsis thaliana cGMP levels. FEBS Lett 569:317–320PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Drew EA, Murray RS, Smith SE (2006) Functional diversity of external hyphae of AM fungi: ability to colonies new hosts is influenced by fungal species, distance and soil conditions. Appl Soil Ecol 32:350–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Duke ER, Johnson CR, Koch KE (1986) Accumulation of phosphorus, dry matter and betaine during NaCl stress of split-root citrus seedlings colonized with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zero, one or two halves. New Phytol 104:583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. El-Desouky SA, Atawia AAR (1998) Growth performance of citrus rootstocks under saline conditions. Alex J Agric Res 43:231–254Google Scholar
  51. Estrada-Luna AA, Davies FT (2003) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence water relations, gas exchange, abscisic acid and growth of micropropagated chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum) plantlets during acclimatization and post acclimatization. J Plant Physiol 160:1073–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Evelin H, Kapoor R, Giri B (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Ann Bot 104:1263–1280PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Feng G, Zhang FS, Li X, Tian CY, Tang C, Rengel Z (2002) Improved tolerance of maize plants to salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza is related to higher accumulation of soluble sugars in roots. Mycorrhiza 12:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2008) Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytol 179:945–963PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Flowers TJ, Yeo AR (1995) Breeding for salinity resistance in crop plants: where next? Aust J Plant Physiol 22:875–884Google Scholar
  56. Founoune H, Duponnis R, Ba AM, Ei Bouami F (2002) Influence of the dual arbuscular endomycorrhizal/ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on the growth of Acacia holosericea (A. Cunn. ex G. Don) in glasshouse conditions. Ann For Sci 59:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Friese C, Allen MF (1991) The spread of VA mycorrhizal fungal hyphae in the soil: inoculum types and external hyphal architecture. Mycologia 83:409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fukuda A, Nakamura A, Tanaka Y (1999) Molecular cloning and expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene in Oryza sativa. Biochim Biophys Acta 1446:149–155PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Fuzy A, Biro B, Toth T, Hildebrandt U, Bothe H (2008) Drought, but not salinity, determines the apparent effectiveness of halophytes colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J Plant Physiol 165:1181–1192Google Scholar
  60. Gallagher JK (1985) Halophytic crops for cultivation at seawater salinity. Plant and Soil 89:323–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gamalero E, Lingua G, Berta G, Glick BR (2009) Beneficial role of plant growth promoting bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant responses to heavy metal stress. Can J Microbiol 55:501–514PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Garg N, Manchanda G (2008) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of salt-induced nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea). J Plant Growth Regul 27:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Garg N, Manchanda G (2009) Role of arbuscular mycorrhizae in the alleviation of ionic, osmotic and oxidative stresses induced by salinity in Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp. (pigeon pea). J Agron Crop Sci 195:110–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ghazi N, Al-Karaki GN (2006) Nursery inoculation of tomato with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and subsequent performance under irrigation with saline water. Sci Hortic 109:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ghoulam CA, Foursy KF (2002) Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 47:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Giovannetti M, Sbrana C, Logi C (1994) Early processes involved in host recognition by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 127:703–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Giovannetti M, Azzolini D, Citernesi AS (1999) Anastomosis formation and nuclear and protoplasmic exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:5571–5575PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Giri B, Mukerji KG (2004) Mycorrhizal inoculant alleviates salt stress in Sesbania aegyptiaca and Sesbania grandiflora under field conditions: evidence for reduced sodium and improved magnesium uptake. Mycorrhiza 14:307–312PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Giri B, Kapoor R, Mukerji KG (2003) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth, biomass, and mineral nutrition of Acacia auriculiformis. Biol Fertil Soils 38:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Giri B, Kapoor R, Mukerji KG (2007) Improved tolerance of Acacia nilotica to salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza, Glomus fasciculatum may be partly related to elevated K+/Na+ ratios in root and shoot tissues. Microb Ecol 54:753–760PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Glenn EP, O’Leary JW (1985) Productivity and irrigation requirements of halophytes grown with seawater in the Sonoran desert. J Arid Environ 9:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gorham J (1995) Betaines in higher plants – biosynthesis and role in stress metabolism. In: Wallsgrove RM (ed) Amino acids and their derivatives in higher plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 171–203Google Scholar
  73. Gonzalez EM, Aparicio-Tejo PM, Gordon AJ, Minchin FR, Royuela M, Arrese-Igor C (1998) Water deficit effects on carbon and nitrogen metabolism of pea nodules. J Exp Bot 49:1705–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1992) Mineral element acquisition and growth response of plants grown in saline environments. Agric Ecosyst Environ 38:275–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1999) Salinity-mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Sci Hortic 78:127–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gunes A, Inal A, Alpaslan M (1996) Effect of salinity on stomatal resistance, proline and mineral composition of pepper. J Plant Nutr 19:389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gupta AB, Sankararamakrishnan R (2009) Genome-wide analysis of major intrinsic proteins in the tree plant Populus trichocarpa: characterization of XIP subfamily of aquaporins from evolutionary perspective. BMC Plant Biol 9:134PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hajiboland R, Joudmand A (2009) The K/Na replacement and function of antioxidant defence system in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars. Acta Agric Scand B Soil Plant Sci 59:246–259Google Scholar
  79. Hajiboland R, Aliasgharzadeh N, Laiegh SF, Poschenrieder C (2010) Colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves salinity tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. Plant Soil 331:313–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hammer EC, Nasr H, Pallon J, Olsson PA, Wallander H (2010) Elemental composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at high salinity. Mycorrhiza 21:117–129PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Hanin M, Brini F, Ebel C, Toda Y, Takeda S, Masmoudi K (2011) Plant dehydrins and stress tolerance: versatile proteins for complex mechanisms. Plant Signal Behav 6:1503–1509PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Harisnaut P, Poonsopa D, Roengmongkol K, Charoensataporn R (2003) Salinity effects on antioxidant enzymes in mulberry cultivar. Sci Asia 29:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. He XH, Nara K (2007) Element biofortification: can mycorrhizas potentially offer a more effective and sustainable pathway to curb human malnutrition? Trends Plant Sci 12:331–333PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Hejiden JN, Klironomos M, Ursic P (1998) Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature 396:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hildebrandt U, Regvar M, Bothe H (2007) Arbuscular mycorrhiza and heavy metal tolerance. Phytochemistry 68:139–146PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Hill AE, Shachar-Hill B, Shachar-Hill Y (2004) What are aquaporins for? J Membr Biol 197:1–32PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Hirrel MC, Gerdemann JW (1980) Improved growth of onion and bell pepper in saline soils by two vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:654–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hoekstra FA, Golovina EA, Buitink J (2001) Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 6:431–438PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Hu CA, Delauney AJ, Verma DP (1992) A bifunctional enzyme (pyrroline-5-carboxylate syntethase) catalyzes the first two steps in proline biosynthesis in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:9354–9358PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Imai R, Chang L, Ohta A, Bray EA, Takagi M (1996) A lea-class gene of tomato confers salt and freezing tolerance when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 170:243–248PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Jahromi F, Aroca R, Porcel R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2008) Influence of salinity on the in vitro development of Glomus intraradices and on the in vivo physiological and molecular responses of mycorrhizal lettuce plants. Microb Ecol 55:45–53PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Jakob B, Heber U (1996) Photoproduction and detoxification of hydroxyl radicals in chloroplasts and leaves and relation to photoinactivation of photosystems I and II. Plant Cell Physiol 37:629–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jakobsen I, Abbott K, Robson AD (1992) External hyphae of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Trifolium subterraneum L. I Spread of hyphae and phosphorus inflow into roots. New Phytol 120:371–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Jansa J, Mozafar A, Frossard E (2003) Long-distance transport of P and Zn through the hyphae of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in symbiosis with maize. Agronomie 23:481–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jeffries P, Gianinazzi S, Perotto S, Turnau K, Barea JM (2003) The contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sustainable maintenance of plant health and soil fertility. Biol Fertil Soils 37:1–16Google Scholar
  96. Jimenez JS, Debouck DG, Lynch JP (2003) Growth, gas exchange, water relations, and ion composition of Phaseolus species grown under saline conditions. Field Crop Res 80:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Juniper S, Abbott LK (1993) Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity. Mycorrhiza 4:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Juniper S, Abbott LK (2006) Soil salinity delays germination and limits growth of hyphae from propagules of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 16:371–379PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Kaplan B, Sherman T, Fromm H (2007) Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in plants. FEBS Lett 581:2237–2246PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Kapoor R, Sharma D, Bhatnagar AK (2008) Arbuscular mycorrhizae in micropropagation systems and their potential applications. Sci Hortic 116:227–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kaya C, Kirnak H, Higgs D (2001) Enhancement of growth and normal growth parameters by foliar application of potassium and phosphorus in tomato cultivars grown at high (NaCl) salinity. J Plant Nutr 24:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kaya C, Ashraf M, Sonmez O, Aydemir S, Levent Tuna A, Cullu AM (2009) The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation on key growth parameters and fruit yield of pepper plants grown at high salinity. Sci Hortic 121:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kilironomos JN, Moutoglis P, Kendrick B, Widden P (1993) A comparison of spatial heterogeneity of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two maple forest soils. Can J Bot 71:1472–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kishor PB, Hong Z, Miao GH (1995) Overexpression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase increases proline production and confers osmotolerance in transgenic plants. Plant Physiol 108:1387–1394PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Koag MC, Fenton RD, Wilkens S, Close TJ (2003) The binding of maize DHN1 to lipid vesicles. Gain of structure and lipid specificity. Plant Physiol 131:309–316PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kohler J, Hernandez JA, Caravaca F, Roldana A (2009) Induction of antioxidant enzymes is involved in the greater effectiveness of a PGPR versus AM fungi with respect to increasing the tolerance of lettuce to severe salt stress. Environ Exp Bot 65:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Koske RE (1981) Multiple germination by spores of Gigaspora gigantea. Trans Br Mycol Soc 76:328–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kothari SK, Marschner H, George E (1990) Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microorganism on root and shoot morphology, growth and water relations of maize. New Phytol 116:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kour D, Rana KL, Yadav N, Yadav AN, Singh J, Rastegari AA, Saxena AK (2019) Agriculturally and industrially important fungi: current developments and potential biotechnological applications. In: Yadav AN, Singh S, Mishra S, Gupta A (eds) Recent advancement in white biotechnology through fungi, Perspective for value-added products and environments, vol 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 1–64. Scholar
  110. Kugler A, Köhler B, Palme K, Wolff P (2009) Salt-dependent regulation of a CNG channel subfamily in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol 9:140. Scholar
  111. Kumar A, Sharma S, Mishra S (2009) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and salinity on seedling growth, solute accumulation, and mycorrhizal dependency of Jatropha curcas L. J Plant Growth Regul 29:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kurepa J, Smalle J, Montagu MV, Inze D (1998) Polyamines and paraquat toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol 39:987–992PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Lee YJ, George E (2005) Contribution of mycorrhizal hyphae to the uptake of metal cations by cucumber plants at two levels of phosphorus supply. Plant Soil 278:361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Linderman RG (2000) Effects of mycorrhizas on plant tolerance to diseases. In: Kapulnik Y, Douds DD Jr (eds) Arbuscular mycorrhizas: physiology and function. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 345–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Logi C, Sbrana C, Giovannetti M (1998) Cellular events involved in survival of individual arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts growing in the absence of the host. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:3473–3479Google Scholar
  116. Maathuis FJM, Sanders D (2001) Sodium uptake in Arabidopsis roots is regulated by cyclic nucleotides. Plant Physiol 127:1617–1625PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Maggio A, Joly RJ (1995) Effects of mercuric chloride on the hydraulic conductivity of tomato root systems. Plant Physiol 109:331–335PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Marulanda A, Azcón R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2003) Contribution of six arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates to water uptake by Lactuca sativa plants under drought stress. Physiol Plant 119:526–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Marulanda A, Porcel R, Barea JM, Azcon R (2007) Drought tolerance and antioxidant activities in lavender plants colonized by native drought-tolerant or drought-sensitive Glomus species. Microb Ecol 54:543–552PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Maser P, Thomine S, Schroeder JI, Ward JM, Hirschi K, Sze H, Talke IN, Amtmann A, Maathuis FJM, Sanders D, Harper JF, Tchieu J, Gribskov M, Persans MW, Salt DE, Kim SA, Guerinot ML (2001) Phylogenetic relationships within cation transporter families of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 126:1646–1667PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mathur N, Vyas P, Joshi N, Choudhary K, Purohit DK (1999) Mycorrhiza: A Potent Bioinoculant for Sustainable Agriculture. In: Pathak H, Sharma A (eds) Microbial Technology: The Emerging Era. Lambert Academic Publisher, Germany, pp 230–245Google Scholar
  123. Mathur N, Singh J, Bohra S, Vyas A (2007) Arbuscular mycorrhizal status of medicinal halophytes in saline areas of Indian Thar Desert. Int J Soil Sci 2:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Menconi M, Sgherri CLM, Pinzino C, Navariizzo F (1995) Activated oxygen production and detoxification in wheat plants subjected to a water deficit program. J Exp Bot 46:1123–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Miransari M (2010) Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to plant growth under different types of soil stress. Plant Biol 1:563–569Google Scholar
  126. Miransari M, Bahrami HA, Rejali F, Malakouti MJ (2008) Using arbuscular mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1197–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Morgan JM (1984) Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 33:299–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol 167:645–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Murkute AA, Sharma S, Singh SK (2006) Studies on salt stress tolerance of citrus rootstock genotypes with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Hortic Sci 33:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Neumann E, George E (2005) Extraction of arbuscular mycorrhiza mycelium from compartments filled with wet sieved soil and glass beads. Mycorrhiza 15:533–537PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Nunez M, Mazzafera P, Mazorra LM, Siqueira WJ, Zullo MAT (2003) Influence of a brassinosteroid analogue on antioxidant enzymes in rice grown in culture medium with NaCl. Biol Plant 47:67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ojala JC, Jarrell WM, Menge JA, Johnson ELV (1983) Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on the mineral nutrition and yield of onion in saline soil. Agron J 75:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Olsson PA, Wilhelmsson P (2000) The growth of external AM fungal mycelium in sand dunes and in experimental systems. Plant Soil 226:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ouziad F, Wilde P, Schmelzer E, Hildebrandt U, Bothe H (2006) Analysis of expression of aquaporins and Na+/H+ transporters in tomato colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and affected by salt stress. Environ Exp Bot 57:77–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Pearson JN, Schweiger P (1993) Scutellospora calospora (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Sanders associated with subterranean clover: dynamics of colonization, sporulation and soluble carbohydrates. New Phytol 124:215–219Google Scholar
  136. Pond EC, Menge JA, Jarrell WM (1984) Improved growth of tomato in salinized soil by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi collected from saline soils. Mycologia 76:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Porcel R, Barea JM, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2003) Antioxidant activities in mycorrhizal soybean plants under drought stress and their possible relationship to the process of nodule senescence. New Phytol 157:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Porcel R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2004) Arbuscular mycorrhizal influence on leaf water potential, solute accumulation, and oxidative stress in soybean plants subjected to drought stress. J Exp Bot 55:1743–1750Google Scholar
  139. Porcel R, Azcon R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2005) Evaluation of the role of genes encoding for dehydrin proteins (LEA D-11) during drought stress in arbuscular mycorrhizal Glycine max and Lactuca sativa plants. J Exp Bot 56:1933–1942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Porcel R, Aroca R, Azcon R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2006) PIP aquaporin gene expression in arbuscular mycorrhizal Glycine max and Lactuca sativa plants in relation to drought stress tolerance. Plant Mol Biol 60:389–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Porcel R, Aroca R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2012) Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 32:181–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Porras-Soriano A, Soriano-Martin ML, Porras-Piedra A, Azcon R (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased growth, nutrient uptake and tolerance to salinity in olive trees under nursery conditions. J Plant Physiol 166:1350–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Poss JA, Pond E, Menge JA, Jarrell WM (1985) Effect of salinity on mycorrhizal onion and tomato in soil with and without additional phosphate. Plant Soil 88:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Pottosin I, Shabala S (2014) Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling. Front Plant Sci 5:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rabie GH, Almadini AM (2005) Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba plants. Afr J Biotechnol 4:210–222Google Scholar
  146. Ramoliya PJ, Patel HM, Pandey AN (2004) Effect of salinization of soil on growth and macro- and micro-nutrient accumulation in seedlings of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). For Ecol Manag 202:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rana KL, Kour D, Sheikh I, Dhiman A, Yadav N, Yadav AN, Rastegari AA, Singh K, Saxena AK (2019a) Endophytic fungi: biodiversity, ecological significance, and potential industrial applications. In: Yadav AN, Mishra S, Singh S, Gupta A (eds) Recent advancement in white biotechnology through fungi, Diversity and enzymes perspectives, vol 1. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 1–62. Scholar
  148. Rana KL, Kour D, Sheikh I, Yadav N, Yadav AN, Kumar V, Singh BP, Dhaliwal HS, Saxena AK (2019b) Biodiversity of endophytic fungi from diverse niches and their biotechnological applications. In: Singh BP (ed) Advances in endophytic fungal research: present status and future challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 105–144. Scholar
  149. Rao DLN (1998) Biological amelioration of salt-affected soils. In: Subba Rao NS, Dommergues YR (eds) Microbial interactions in agriculture and forestry, vol 1. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 21–238Google Scholar
  150. Redecker D, Morton JB, Bruns TD (2000) Ancestral lineages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales). Mol Phylogenet Evol 14:276–284PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Remy W, Taylort TN, Hass H, Kerp H (1994) Plant biology four hundred-million-year-old vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:11841–11843Google Scholar
  152. Requena N, Jeffries P, Barea JM (1996) Assessment of natural mycorrhizal potential in a desertified semiarid ecosystem. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:842–847PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Rinaldelli E, Mancuso S (1996) Response of young mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) to saline conditions. I. Short-term electrophysiological and long term vegetative salt effects. Adv Hortic Sci 10:126–134Google Scholar
  154. Rosendahl CN, Rosendahl S (1991) Influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) on the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to salt stress. Environ Exp Bot 31:313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rozema J, Arp W, Vandiggelen J, Vanesbroek M, Broekman R, Punte H (1986) Occurrence and ecological significance of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza in the salt marsh environment. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 35:457–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rubio F, Flores P, Navarro JM, Martínez V (2003) Effects of Ca2+, K+ and cGMP on Na+ uptake in pepper plants. Plant Sci 165:1043–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ruiz-Lozano JM (2003) Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and alleviation of osmotic stress. New perspectives for molecular studies. Mycorrhiza 13:309–317PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Ruiz-Lozano JM, Azcon R, Gomez M (1996) Alleviation of salt stress by arbuscular-mycorrhizal Glomus species in Lactuca sativa plants. Physiol Plant 98:767–772Google Scholar
  159. Ruiz-Lozano JM, Azcon R (2000) Symbiotic efficiency and infectivity of an autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal Glomus sp. from saline soils and Glomus deserticola under salinity. Mycorrhiza 10:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ruiz-Lozano JM, Collados C, Barea JM, Azcon R (2001) Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can alleviate drought induced nodule senescence in soybean plants. Plant Physiol 82:346–350Google Scholar
  161. Sannazzaro AI, Ruiz OA, Alberto EO, Menendez AB (2006) Alleviation of salt stress in Lotus glaber by Glomus intraradices. Plant Soil 285:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sannazzaro AI, Echeverria M, Alberto EO, Ruiz OA, Menéndez AB (2007) Modulation of polyamine balance in Lotus glaber by salinity and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:39–46PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Sarda X, Tousch D, Ferrare K, Cellier F, Alcon C, Dupuis JM, Casse F, Lamaze T (1999) Characterization of closely related TIP genes encoding aquaporins which are differentially expressed in sunflower roots upon water deprivation through exposure to air. Plant Mol Biol 40:179–191PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Scandalios JG (1993) Oxygen stress and superoxide dismutases. Plant Physiol 101:7–12PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Schwab SM, Menge JA, Tinker PB (1991) Regulation of nutrient transfer between host and fungus in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas. New Phytol 117:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sharifi M, Ghorbanli M, Ebrahimzadeh H (2007) Improved growth of salinity-stressed soybean after inoculation with pre-treated mycorrhizal fungi. J Plant Physiol 164:1144–1151PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. Sheng M, Tang M, Chen H, Yang B, Zhang F, Huang Y (2008) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 18:287–296PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. Shenker M, Bell GA, Shani U (2003) Sweet corn response to combined nitrogen and salinity environmental stresses. Plant Soil 256:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Smirnoff N (1993) The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation. New Phytol 125:27–58Google Scholar
  170. Smith FA, Smith SE (1997) Structural diversity in (vesicular)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 137:373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, UK, pp 1–815Google Scholar
  172. Sottosanto JB, Gelli A, Blumwald E (2004) DNA array analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana lacking a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter: impact of AtNHX1 on gene expression. Plant J 40:752–771PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. Tabatabaei SJ (2006) Effects of salinity and N on the growth, photosynthesis and N status of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees. Sci Hortic 108:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Talaat NB, Shawky BT (2011) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on yield, nutrients, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes of two wheat cultivars under salt stress. Soil Sci 174:283–291Google Scholar
  175. Talke IN, Blaudez D, Maathuis FJM, Sanders D (2003) CNGCs: prime targets of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling? Trends Plant Sci 8:286–293PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ Tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91:503–527.
  177. Thomson BD, Robson AD, Abbott LK (1990) Mycorrhizas formed by Gigaspora calospora and Glomus fasciculatum on subterranean clover in relation to soluble carbohydrate concentrations in roots. New Phytol 114:217–225Google Scholar
  178. Tian CY, Feng G, Li XL, Zhang FS (2004) Different effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates from saline or non-saline soil on salinity tolerance of plants. Appl Soil Ecol 26:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Turkan I, Demiral T (2009) Recent developments in understanding salinity tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 67:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Tuteja N (2007) Mechanisms of high salinity tolerance in plants. Methods Enzymol 428:419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Venema K, Belver A, Marin-Manzano MC, Rodríguez-Rosales MP, Donaire JP (2003) A novel intracellular K+/H+ antiporter related to Na+/H+ antiporters is important for K+ ion homeostasis in plants. J Biol Chem 278:22453–22459PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Verma P, Yadav AN, Kumar V, Singh DP, Saxena AK (2017) Beneficial plant-microbes interactions: biodiversity of microbes from diverse extreme environments and its impact for crop improvement. In: Singh DP, Singh HB, Prabha R (eds) Plant-microbe interactions in agro-ecological perspectives, Microbial interactions and agro-ecological impacts, vol 2. Springer Singapore, Singapore, pp 543–580. Scholar
  183. Voets L, de la Providencia IE, Fernandez K, Ijdo M, Cranenbrouck S, Declerck S (2009) Extraradical mycelium network of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi allows fast colonization of seedlings under in vitro conditions. Mycorrhiza 19:347–356PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Wang B, Funakoshi DM, Dalpe Y, Hamel C (2002) Phosphorus-32 absorption and translocation to host plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at low root-zone temperature. Mycorrhiza 12:93–96PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003) Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218:114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wright SF, Upadhyaya A (1998) A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 198:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wu QS, Xia RX (2006) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. J Plant Physiol 163:417–425PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Wu YY, Chen QJ, Chen M, Chen J, Wang XC (2005) Salt-tolerant transgenic perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) obtained by Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene. Plant Sci 169:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wu QS, Zou YN, Xia RX, Wang MY (2007) Five Glomus species affect water relations of Citrus tangerine during drought stress. Bot Stud 48:147–154Google Scholar
  190. Yadav AN (2017) Agriculturally important microbiomes: biodiversity and multifarious PGP attributes for amelioration of diverse abiotic stresses in crops for sustainable agriculture. Biomed J Sci Tech Res 1:1–4Google Scholar
  191. Yadav AN, Saxena AK (2018) Biodiversity and biotechnological applications of halophilic microbes for sustainable agriculture. J Appl Biol Biotech 6:1–8Google Scholar
  192. Yadav AN, Yadav N (2018) Stress-adaptive microbes for plant growth promotion and alleviation of drought stress in plants. Acta Sci Agric 2:85–88Google Scholar
  193. Yadav AN, Sharma D, Gulati S, Singh S, Kaushik R, Dey R, Pal KK, Saxena AK (2015) Haloarchaea endowed with phosphorus solubilization attribute implicated in phosphorus cycle. Sci Rep 5:12293PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Yadav AN, Verma P, Kaushik R, Dhaliwal HS, Saxena AK (2017a) Archaea endowed with plant growth promoting attributes. EC Microbiol 8:294–298Google Scholar
  195. Yadav AN, Verma P, Kour D, Rana KL, Kumar V, Singh B, Chauahan VS, Sugitha T, Saxena AK, Dhaliwal HS (2017b) Plant microbiomes and its beneficial multifunctional plant growth promoting attributes. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res 3:1–8. Scholar
  196. Yadav AN, Kumar V, Prasad R, Saxena AK, Dhaliwal HS (2018) Microbiome in crops: diversity, distribution and potential role in crops improvements. In: Prasad R, Gill SS, Tuteja N (eds) Crop improvement through microbial biotechnology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 305–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Yadav AN, Gulati S, Sharma D, Singh RN, Rajawat MVS, Kumar R, Dey R, Pal KK, Kaushik R, Saxena AK (2019a) Seasonal variations in culturable archaea and their plant growth promoting attributes to predict their role in establishment of vegetation in Rann of Kutch. Biologia.
  198. Yadav AN, Mishra S, Singh S, Gupta A (2019b) Recent advancement in white biotechnology through fungi volume 1: diversity and enzymes perspectives. Springer International Publishing, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Yadav AN, Mishra S, Singh S, Gupta A (2019c) Recent advancement in white biotechnology through fungi. Volume 2: perspective for value-added products and environments. Springer International Publishing, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Yamato M, Ikeda S, Iwase K (2008) Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a coastal vegetation on Okinawa island and effect of the isolated fungi on growth of sorghum under salt-treated conditions. Mycorrhiza 18:241–249PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Yano-Melo M, Saggin OJ, Maia LC (1999) Tolerance of mycorrhized banana (Musa sp. cv. Pacovan) plantlets to saline stress. Agric Ecosyst Environ 95:343–348Google Scholar
  202. Yokoi S, Quintero FJ, Cubero B, Ruiz MT, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM, Pardo JM (2002) Differential expression and function of Arabidopsis thaliana NHX Na+/H+ antiporters in the salt stress response. Plant J 30:529–539PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. Yoshiba Y, Kiyosue T, Katagiri T, Ueda H, Mizoguchi T, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Wada K, Harada Y, Shinozaki K (1995) Correlation between the induction of a gene for delta (1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and the accumulation of proline in Arabidopsis thaliana under osmotic stress. Plant J 7:751–760PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Zhu JK (2003) Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:441–445PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. Zuccarini P (2007) Mycorrhizal infection ameliorates chlorophyll content and nutrient uptake of lettuce exposed to saline irrigation. Plant Soil Environ 53:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Zuccarini P, Okurowska P (2008) Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and fertilization on growth and photosynthesis of sweet basil under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 31:497–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dileep Kumar
    • 1
  • Priyanka Priyanka
    • 1
  • Pramendra Yadav
    • 1
  • Anurag Yadav
    • 2
  • Kusum Yadav
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyCollege of Basic Science and Humanities, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural UniversityBanaskanthaIndia

Personalised recommendations