Advertisement

Nonhuman Primate Responses to Death

  • Sarah F. Brosnan
  • Jennifer Vonk
Chapter
Part of the Evolutionary Psychology book series (EVOLPSYCH)

Abstract

A key feature that seems to separate humans and other species is humans’ ability to conceive of death. Although other species also respond differently to deceased individuals in their groups, we do not yet know what they understand about what has happened or at what point, if ever, they understand that another individual is gone permanently. Moreover, in many cases, we do not even know the degree to which other species possess the concepts that are necessary to understand these abstract concepts (i.e., inevitability, self, other, agency, absence, metacognition, and the ability to mentally time travel). However, pinning this down is important for several reasons. First, if we are to understand how our own conceptions of and reactions to death evolved, we need to understand other species as well, even though they will not likely be the same as humans. On the flip side, understanding how other species respond to death will also inform our understanding of their cognition and behavior, providing a window into abilities that have been difficult to empirically measure. In this chapter, we first consider some of the necessary cognitive abilities for humans’ conception of death, then discuss the extant evidence in other species (primarily nonhuman primates), and end with a consideration of the challenges facing our understanding of death and how solving these will concurrently address similar challenges in other areas of comparative psychology.

Keywords

Primates Grief Nonhuman primates Comparative psychology Animal behavior 

References

  1. Alvarez, S., Di Fiore, A., Champion, J., Pavelka, M. S., Páez, J., & Link, A. (2015). Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.). Primates, 56, 173–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. R., & Gallup Jr., G. G. (2011). Which primates recognize themselves in mirrors? PLoS Biology, 9(3), 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. R., & Gallup Jr., G. G. (2015). Mirror self-recognition: A review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates. Primates, 56, 317–326.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. R., Gillies, A., & Lock, L. C. (2010). Pan thanatology. Current Biology, 20(8), R349–R351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, K. (2018). Apes track false beliefs but might not understand them. Learning & Behavior, 46, 3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Apperly, I. A. (2008). Beyond simulation-theory and theory-theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use its own concepts to study “theory of mind.”. Cognition, 107, 266–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atsumi, T., & Nagasaka, Y. (2015). Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus). Animal Cognition, 18, 1243–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartal, I., Decety, J., & Mason, P. (2011). Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats. Science, 334, 1427–1430.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartlett, T. Q., Sussman, R. W., & Cheverud, J. M. (1993). Infant killing in primates: A review of observed cases with specific reference to the sexual selection hypothesis. American Anthropologist, 95, 958–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beehner, J. C., & Bergman, T. J. (2008). Infant mortality following male takeovers in wild geladas. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 1152–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benatar, D. (2017). The human predicament: A candid guide to life’s biggest questions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beran, M. J. (2016). “Zeroing” in on mathematics in the monkey brain. Learning & Behavior, 44, 4–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berman, C. M. (1982). The social development of an orphaned rhesus infant on Cayo Santiago: Male care, foster mother-orphan interaction and peer interaction. American Journal of Primatology, 3, 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Biro, D., Humle, T., Koops, K., Sousa, C., Hayashi, M., & Matsuzawa, T. (2010). Chimpanzee mothers at Bossou, Guinea, carry the mummified remains of their dead infants. Current Biology, 20(8), R351–R352.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bliss-Moreau, E., & Brosnan, S. F. (in review). The emotional lives of non-human animals. In A. Scarantino (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of emotion theory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Bonnie, K., Horner, V., Whiten, A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2006). Spread of arbitrary customs among chimpanzees: A controlled experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274, 367–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Botero, M., MacDonald, S. E., & Miller, R. S. (2012). Anxiety-related behavior of orphan chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Primates, 54, 21–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bourjade, M., Call, J., Pele, M., Maumy, M., & Dufour, V. (2014). Bonobos and orangutans, but not chimpanzees, flexibly plan for the future in a token-exchange task. Animal Cognition, 17, 1329–1340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brosnan, S. F., Houser, D., Leimgruber, K., Xiao, E., Chen, T., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2010). Competing demands of prosociality and equity in monkeys. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(4), 279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruck, J. (2018). Grief in animals: does an orca have to be a human with fins for us to care? Retrieved August 17, 2018, from http://awesomeocean.com/top-stories/grief-animals-orca-human-fins-us-care/
  21. Burge, T. (2018). Do infants and nonhuman animals attribute mental states? Psychological Review, 125, 409–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buttelmann, D., Buttelmann, F., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2017). Great apes distinguish true from false beliefs in an interactive helping task. PLoS One, 12, 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Byrne, R. W. (2007). Culture in great apes: using intricate complexity in feeding skills to trace the evolutionary origin of human technical prowess. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362, 577–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Call, J., & Carpenter, M. (2001). Do apes and children know what they have seen? Animal Cognition, 3, 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (1999). A nonverbal false belief task: the performance of children and great apes. Child development, 70(2), 381–95.Google Scholar
  26. Campbell, M. W., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). In-group-out-group bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy. PLoS One, 6(4), e18283.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cäsar, C., & Young, R. J. (2008). A case of adoption in a wild group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons). Primates, 49, 146–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen, Q., Panksepp, J. B., & Lahvis, G. P. (2009). Empathy is moderated by genetic background in mice. PLoS One, 4(2), e4387.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Choe, D.-H., Millar, J. G., & Rust, M. K. (2009). Chemical signals associated with life inhibit necrophoresis in Argentine ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(20), 8251–8255.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Claidière, N., Whiten, A., Mareno, M. C., Messer, E. J. E., Brosnan, S. F., Hopper, L. M., et al. (2015). Selective and contagious prosocial resource donation in capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and humans. Scientific Reports, 5, 7631.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clayton, N. S. (2017). Episodic-like memory and mental time travel in animals. In J. Call, G. M. Burghardt, I. M. Pepperberg, C. T. Snowdon, & T. Zentall (Eds.), APA handbook of comparative psychology: Perception, learning, and cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 227–243). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  32. Culot, L., Lledo-Ferrer, Y., Hoelscher, O., Lazo, F. J. J. M., Huynen, M., & Heymann, E. W. (2011). Reproductive failure, possible maternal infanticide, and cannibalism in wild moustached tamarins Saguinus mystax. Primates, 52, 179–186.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Darwin, C. (1998/1899). The expression of the emotions in man and animals (Third). London: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  34. de Blois, S. T., Novak, M. A., & Bond, M. (1998). Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 137–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. de Lathouwers, M., & van Elsacker, L. (2007). Successful behavioural adaptation of an orphaned juvenile Bonobo Pan paniscus: a case study at the Primate Park Apenheul, the Netherlands. International Zoo Yearbook, 41, 176–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. de Veer, M. W., & Van den Bos, R. (1999). A critical review of methodology and interpretation of mirror self-recognition research in nonhuman primates. Animal Behaviour, 58, 459–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. de Waal, F. B. M. (1982). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  38. de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). What is an animal emotion? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1224, 191–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. de Waal, F. B. M., & Seres, M. (1997). Propagation of handclasp grooming among captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 43, 339–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dunham, N. T., & Opere, P. O. (2016). A unique case of extra-group infant adoption in free-ranging Angola black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus). Primates, 57, 187–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eaton, T., Hutton, R., Leete, J., Lieb, J., Robeson, A., & Vonk, J. (2018). Bottoms-up! Rejecting top-down human-centered approaches in comparative psychology. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 31. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/11t5q9wt.
  42. Eckert, J., Rakoczy, H., & Call, J. (2017). Are great apes able to reason from multi-item samples to populations of food items? American Journal of Primatology, 79, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Emery, N. J., & Clayton, N. S. (2004). The mentality of crows: Convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science, 306, 1903–1907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Etienne, A. S. (1984). The meaning of object permanence at different zoological levels. Human Development, 27, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fashing, P. J., Nguyen, N., Barry, T. S., Goodale, C. B., Burke, R. J., Jones, S. C. Z., et al. (2011). Death among geladas (Theropithecus gelada): A broader perspective on mummified infants and primate thanatology. American Journal of Primatology, 73, 405–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flavell, J. H. (1999). Cognitive development: Children’s knowledge about the mind. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 21–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fruteau, C., Range, F., & Noë, R. (2010). Infanticide risk and infant defence in multi-male free-ranging sooty mangabeys Cercocebus atys. Behavioural Processes, 83, 113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goodall, J. (1986). The chimpanzees of Gombe. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Goodall, J. (1990). Through a window: My thirty years with the chimpanzees of Gombe. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  50. Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., Simon, L., & Breus, M. (1994). Role of consciousness and accessibility of death-related thoughts in mortality salience effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 627–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamilton, W. J., Busse, C., & Smith, K. S. (1982). Adoption of infant orphan chacma baboons. Animal Behaviour, 30, 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hampton, R. (2018). Parallel overinterpretation of behavior of apes and corvids. Learning & Behavior.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-018-0330-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Harvell, L. A., & Nisbette, G. S. (Eds.). (2016). Denying death: An interdisciplinary approach to terror management theory. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  54. Hauser, M. D. (1998). A nonhuman primate's expectations about object motion and destination: The importance of self-propelled movement and animacy. Developmental Science, 1, 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hernandez-Lallement, J., van Wingerden, M., Marx, C., Srejic, M., & Kalenscher, T. (2015). Rats prefer mutual rewards in a prosocial choice task. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8, 443.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Heyes, C. (2017). Apes submentalise. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21, 1–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. (1988). Adaptive significance of infanticide in primates. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 3(5), 102–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hirata, S., Fuwa, K., & Myowa, M. (2017). Chimpanzees recognize their own delayed self-image. Royal Society Open Science, 4, 170370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hobaiter, C., Schel, A. M., Langergraber, K., & Zuberbühler, K. (2014). ‘Adoption’ by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees. PLoS One, 9(8), e103777.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Horn, L., Scheer, C., Bugnyar, T., & Massen, J. J. M. (2016). Proactive prosociality in a cooperatively breeding corvid, the azure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyana). Biology Letters, 12, 20160649.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Horner, V., Carter, J. D., Suchak, M., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(33), 13847–13851.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. House, B. R., Silk, J. B., Lambeth, S. P., & Schapiro, S. J. (2014). Task design influences prosociality in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). PLoS ONE, 9(9), e103422.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Howard, D. F., & Tschinkel, W. R. (1976). Aspects of necrophoric behavior in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Behaviour, 56, 157–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Howard, S. R., Avarguès-Weber, A., Garcia, J. E., Greentree, A. D., & Dyer, A. G. (2018). Numerical ordering of zero in honey bees. Science, 360, 1124–1126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: A history of mothers, infants, and natural selection. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  66. Jaakkola, K. (2014). Do animals understand invisible displacement? A critical review. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128, 225–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Janson, C. H., & van Schaik, C. P. (2000). The behavioural ecology of infanticide by males. In C. P. van Schaik & C. H. Janson (Eds.), Infanticide by males and it’s Implications (pp. 469–494). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kabadayi, C., & Osvath, M. (2017). Ravens parallel great apes in flexible planning for tool-use and bartering. Science, 357, 202–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kano, F., Krupenye, C., Hirata, S., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2017). Submentalizing cannot explain belief-based action anticipation in apes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21, 633–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaplan, J. (1974). Responses of mother squirrel monkeys to dead infants. Primates, 14, 89–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. King, B. J. (2013). How animals grieve. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kooriyama, T. (2009, December). The death of a newborn chimpanzee at Mahale: Reactions of its mother and other individuals to the body. Pan Africa News, 16(2)4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kornell, N. (2009). Metacognition in humans and animals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Krupenye, C., Kano, F., Hirata, S., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2016). Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. Science, 354, 110–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Langford, D. J., Crager, S. E., Shehzad, Z., Smith, S. B., Sotocinal, S. G., Levenstadt, J. S., et al. (2006). Social modulation of pain as evidence for empathy in mice. Science, 312, 1967–1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Li, T., Ren, B., Li, D., Zhang, Y., & Li, M. (2012). Maternal responses to dead infants in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China. Primates, 53, 127–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lillard, A. S., Zeljo, A., Curenton, S., & Kaugars, A. S. (2000). Children’s understanding of the animacy constraint on pretense. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, 21–44.Google Scholar
  78. Maréchal, L., Levy, X., Meints, K., & Majolo, B. (2017). Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). PeerJ, 5, e3413.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3413CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Marticorena, D. C. W., Ruiz, A. M., Mukerji, C., Goddu, A., & Santos, L. R. (2011). Monkeys represent others’ knowledge but not their beliefs. Developmental Science, 14, 1406–1416.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Matsuzawa, T. (1997). Reviewed Article: The death of an infant chimpanzee at Bossou, Guinea. Pan Africa News, 4, 4–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Merritt, D. J., Rugani, R., & Brannon, E. M. (2009). Empty sets as part of the numerical continuum: Conceptual precursors to the zero concept in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 258–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mitani, J. C., Watts, D. P., & Amsler, S. J. (2006). Lethal intergroup aggression leads to territorial expansion in wild chimpanzees. Current Biology, 20(12), R507–R508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nakamichi, M., Koyama, N., & Jolly, A. (1996). Maternal response to dead and dying infants in wild troops of ring-tailed lemurs at the Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology, 17, 505–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nieder, A. (2016). Representing something out of nothing: The dawning of zero. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20, 830–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nishida, T., Haraiwa-Hasegawa, M., & Takahata, Y. (1985). Group extinction and female transfer in wild chimpanzees in the Mahale National Park, Tanzania. Zeitschrift Fur Tierpsychologie, 67, 284–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Okuyama, S., Kuki, T., & Mushiake, H. (2015). Representation of the numerosity “zero” in the parietal cortex of the monkey. Scientific Reports, 5, 10059.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Osvath, M., & Persson, T. (2013). Great apes can defer exchange: A replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pepperberg, I. M. (2006). Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) numerical abilities: Addition and further experiments on a zero-like concept. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pepperberg, I. M., & Gordon, J. D. (2005). Number comprehension by a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), including a zero-like concept. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119, 197–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Perry, S., & Manson, J. (2008). Manipulative monkeys: The capuchins of Lomas Barbudal. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Poulin-Doubois, D., Lepage, A., & Ferland, D. (1996). Infants’ concept of animacy. Cognitive Development, 11, 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Povinelli, D. J., & Simon, B. B. (1998). Young children’s understanding of briefly versus extremely delayed images of the self: Emergence of the autobiographical stance. Developmental Psychology, 34, 188–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Povinelli, D. J., Landry, A. M., Theall, L. A., Clark, B. R., & Castille, C. M. (1999). Development of young children’s understanding that the recent past is causally bound to the present. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1426–1439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Povinelli, D. J., Bering, J. M., & Giambrone, S. (2000). Toward a science of other minds: Escaping the argument by analogy. Cognitive Science, 24, 509–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pradhan, G. R., Engelhardt, A., van Schaik, C. P., & Maestripieri, D. (2006). The evolution of female copulation calls in primates: A review and a new model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 59, 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 515–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Preuschoft, S., & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1995). Homologizing primate facial displays: A critical review of methods. Folia Primatologica, 65, 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pruetz, J. D., Ontl, K. B., Cleaveland, E., Lindshield, S., Marshack, J., & Wessling, E. G. (2017). Intragroup lethal aggression in west African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus): Inferred killing of a former alpha male at Fongoli, Senegal. International Journal of Primatology, 38, 31–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rosenblatt, A., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., & Lyon, D. (1989). Evidence for terror management theory: I. The effects of mortality salience on reactions to those who violate or uphold cultural values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 681–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rosenson, L. M. (1977). The response of some prosimian primate mothers to their own anesthetized infants. Primates, 18, 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Santini, L. (2011). Conflictual behavior in a lemur mother toward a dying infant. Lemur News, 16, 26–27.Google Scholar
  102. Scarry, C. J., & Tujague, M. P. (2012). Consequences of lethal intragroup aggression and alpha male replacement on intergroup relations and home range use in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). American Journal of Primatology, 74, 804–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schmelz, M., Grueneisen, S., Kabalak, A., Jost, J., & Tomasello, M. (2017). Chimpanzees return favors at a personal cost. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114, 7462–7467.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schwartz, B. L., & Evans, S. (2001). Episodic memory in primates. American Journal of Primatology, 55, 71–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shettleworth, S. J. (2012). Darwin, Tinbergen, and the evolution of comparative cognition. In J. Vonk & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), The oxford handbook of comparative evolutionary psychology (pp. 529–546). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Small, M. F. (1993). Female choices: Sexual behavior of female primates. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Smith, J. D., Shields, W. E., & Washburn, D. A. (2003). The comparative psychology of uncertainty monitoring and metacognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26, 317–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sugiyama, Y., Kurita, H., Matsui, T., Kimoto, S., & Shimomura, T. (2009). Carrying of dead infants by Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers. Anthropological Science, 117, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Swartz, K. B. (1997). What is mirror self-recognition in nonhuman primates, and what is it not? In J. G. Snodgrass & R. L. Thompson (Eds.), The self across psychology: Self-recognition, self-awareness, and the self concept; the self across psychology (pp. 65–71). New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  110. Tecwyn, E. C., Denison, S., Messer, E. J. E., & Buchsbaum, D. (2017). Intuitive probabilistic inference in capuchin monkeys. Animal Cognition, 20, 243–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Teichroeb, J. A., Wikberg, E. C., Bădescu, I., Macdonald, L. J., & Sicotte, P. (2012). Infanticide risk and male quality influence optimal group composition for Colobus vellerosus. Behavioral Ecology, 23, 1348–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thierry, B., & Anderson, J. R. (1986). Adoption in Anthropoid primates. International Journal of Primatology, 7, 191–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tsutsumi, S., Ushitani, T., Tomonaga, M., & Fujita, K. (2012). Infant monkeys' concept of animacy: The role of eyes and fluffiness. Primates, 53, 113–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Uehara, S., & Nyundo, R. (1983). One observed case of temporary adoption of an infant by unrelated nulliparous females among wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Primates, 24, 456–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. van Leeuwen, E. J. C., Mulenga, I. C., Bodamer, M. D., & Cronin, K. A. (2016). Chimpanzees’ responses to the dead body of a 9-year-old group member. American Journal of Primatology, 78, 914–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vonk, J. (2015). Corvid cognition: Something to crow about? Current Biology, 25(2), R69–R71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vonk, J. (2016). Apes have eyes to the future. Learning and Behavior, 44, 207–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vonk, J. (2018). Are chimpanzees ‘stuck’ on their ‘selves’ in video? Learning and Behavior, 46, 227–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vonk, J., & MacDonald, S. E. (2002). Natural concept formation in a juvenile gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at three levels of abstraction. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 78, 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vonk, J., & MacDonald, S. E. (2004). Levels of abstraction in orangutan (Pongo abelii) categorization. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 3–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Vonk, J. & Povinelli, D. J. (2006). Similarity and difference in the conceptual systems of primates: The Unobservability hypothesis. In E. Wasserman and T. Zentall (Eds.) Comparative Cognition: Experimental Explorations of Animal Intelligence. pp.363–387 Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Vonk, J., Jett, S. E., Mosteller, K. W., & Galvan, M. (2013). Natural category discrimination in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at three levels of abstraction. Learning and Behavior, 41, 271–284.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. de Waal, F. (2016). Are we smart enough to know how smart animals are? New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  124. Warren, Y., & Williamson, E. A. (2004). Transport of dead infant mountain gorillas by mothers and unrelated females. Zoo Biology, 23, 375–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Watts, D. P., Muller, M., Amsler, S. J., Mbabazi, G., & Mitani, J. C. (2006). Lethal intergroup aggression by chimpanzees in Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology, 68, 161–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Whilde, J., & Marples, N. (2011). The behavior of a zoo-housed orangutan after the death of its mother. Zoo Biology, 30, 205–211.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W. C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., et al. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Whiten, A., Horner, V., & De Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees. Nature, 437, 737–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wilson, E. O., Durlach, N. I., & Roth, L. M. (1958). Chemical releasers of necrophoric behavior in ants. Psyche, 65, 108–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wilson, M. L., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Furuichi, T., Gilby, I. C., Hashimoto, C., et al. (2014). Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature, 513, 414–417.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Wroblewski, E. E. (2008). An unusual incident of adoption in a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population at Gombe National Park. American Journal of Primatology, 7, 995–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yamamoto, S., & Takimoto, A. (2012). Empathy and fairness: Psychological mechanisms for eliciting and maintaining prosociality and cooperation in primates. Social Justice Research, 25, 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Yang, B., Anderson, J. R., & Li, B.-G. (2016). Tending a dying adult in a wild multi-level primate society. Current Biology, 26(10), R403–R404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yao, H., Yu, H., Yang, B., Yang, W., Xu, H., Grueter, C. C., et al. (2016). Male infanticide in the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), a seasonally breeding primate. International Journal of Primatology, 37, 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah F. Brosnan
    • 1
  • Jennifer Vonk
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychology, Philosophy, and the Neuroscience InstituteGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Psychology, Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations