Advertisement

Breaking the Silence: The Efforts of Syrian Activists to Organise and Mobilise Digitally Supported Protests

  • Billur Aslan Ozgul
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Young People and Politics book series (PSYPP)

Abstract

This chapter sheds light on the difference between the Daraa protests and the 15 March protests organised by the admins of the Syrian Revolution 2011 Facebook page. Why did one spark the revolution while the other only brought 50 activists to the streets? Drawing on the interviews with the administrator of the “Syrian Revolution 2011” Facebook page and the protesters who operated on the ground, it explores the first attempts of the Syrian activists to mobilise the public in Damascus and Daraa. The chapter, thus, demonstrates how variations in regime types and particularly in protesters’ repertoire of contention affected the way in which the activists used the technology.

References

  1. Almqvist, A. (2013). The Syrian uprising and the transnational public sphere. In C. Wieland, A. Almqvist, & H. Naddis (Eds.), The Syrian uprising: Dynamics of an insurgency (pp. 47–78). Fife, Scotland: St. Andrew Papers on Contemporary Syria.Google Scholar
  2. Angelis, E. (2011). The state of disarray of a networked revolution. Sociologica, 3, 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.2383/36423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aslan, B. (2015). The mobilisation process of Syria’s activists: The symbiotic relationship between the use of information and communication technologies and the political culture. International Journal of Communication, 9, 2507–2525.Google Scholar
  4. Castells, M. (2012). Networks of outrage and hope: Social movements in the Internet age. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  5. Chadwick, A. (2013). The hybrid media system: Politics and power. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooke, M. (2007). Dissident Syria: Making oppositional arts official. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Della Porta, D. (2014). On violence and repression: A relational approach (The government and opposition/Leonard Schapiro memorial lecture, 2013). Government and Opposition, 49(2), 159–187.  https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2013.47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Earl, J., & Kimport, K. (2011). Digitally enabled social change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gerbaudo, P. (2012). Tweets and the streets: Social media and contemporary activism. New York, NY: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  10. Ghrer, H. (2013, April). Social media and the Syrian revolution. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, 9(2), 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. In Syria crackdown after protests. (2011, March 18). The New York Times. Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2JWKg0Z.
  13. International Crisis Group. (2011). Popular protest in North Africa and the Middle East (VI): The Syrian people’s slow motion revolution. (Middle East & North Africa Report No. 108). Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2FNSZP0.
  14. Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass communications. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  15. Kilo, M. (2011). Syria… The road to where? Contemporary Arab Affairs, 4(4), 431–444.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2011.630884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kurdwatch. (2009, December). The Al-Qamishli uprising: The beginning of a new era for Syrian Kurds? European Centre for Kurdish Studies, 4. Retrieved from http://www.kurdwatch.org/pdf/kurdwatch_qamischli_en.pdf.
  17. Leenders, R. (2012, December). Collective action and mobilization in Dar’a: An anatomy of the onset of Syria’s popular uprising. Mobilization, 17(4), 419–434.Google Scholar
  18. Lesch, D. W. (2012). Syria: The fall of the house of Assad. Cornwall, UK: TJ International.Google Scholar
  19. Macleod, H. (2011, April 19). Inside Daraa. Al Jazeera. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/1IYX2ps.
  20. Melucci, A. (1989). Nomads of the present: Social movements and individual needs in contemporary society (J. Keane & P. Mier, Eds.). London, UK: Hutchinson Radius.Google Scholar
  21. Melucci, A. (1996). Challenging code: Collective action in the information age. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nabki, Q. (2011, May 2). Talking about a revolution: An interview with Camille Otrakji [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://qifanabki.com/2011/05/02/camille-otrakji-syria-protests/.
  23. Olson, M. (2002). The logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Protesters stage rare demo in Syria. (2011, March 15). Al Jazeera. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2CMNfmu.
  25. Reporters without Borders. (2011, February 25). Ahmad Hadifa released and will not be charged. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2CNlnit.
  26. Saleh, Y. (2003, March). The political culture of modern Syria: Its formation, structure & interactions. Conflict Studies Research Centre, 57–68. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2UlUiNc.
  27. Sinjab, L. (2011, March 4). Syria: Why is there no Egypt-style revolution? BBC. Retrieved from https://bbc.in/2HSOQvf.
  28. Starr, S. (2012). Revolt in Syria: Eye-witness to the uprising. London, UK: Hurst & Co.Google Scholar
  29. Sterling, J. (2012, March 1). Daraa: The spark that lit the Syrian flame. CNN. Retrieved from https://cnn.it/2Uig3gZ.
  30. Syrian police attack marchers at funerals. (2011, March 19). The New York Times. Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2uCnv83.
  31. Tarrow, S. (2011). Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. The revolution reaches Damascus. (2011, March 18). Foreign Policy. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2I9X4OS.
  33. Tilly, C. (2006). Regimes and repertoires. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tufekci, Z. (2014, January 9). Capabilities of movements and affordances of digital media: Paradoxes of empowerment [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/1oqYgO2.
  35. Tufekci, Z. (2017). Twitter and tear gas: The power and fragility of networked protest. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Tufekci, Z., & Wilson, C. (2012). Social media and the decision to participate in political protest: Observations from Tahrir Square. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 363–379.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01629.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zackheim, M. (2011, April 15). Syria’s teenaged prisoners of conscience. Al Jazeera. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2TW1sow.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Billur Aslan Ozgul
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social and Political SciencesBrunel University LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations