TMJ Trauma

  • Claudio CaldarelliEmail author
  • Paolo Busolli
  • Giacomo Paolo Vaudano


Fracture of the mandibular condyle is the most renowned TMJ traumatic event; however, TMJ soft tissue damage exists as well, even when the mandible is not involved directly, as in the case of whiplash injuries. Both fractures and soft tissue injuries may harm the joint and play a role in the development of chronic dysfunctions that can range from disc disorders to osteoarthrosis, fibrous ankylosis, and bone ankylosis. Recent clinical and experimental studies have pointed out the relevance of trauma-induced disc displacement and damage to the condylar cartilage in the development of these complications, with or without the presence of associated condylar fractures (Miyamoto et al. 1999; Li et al. 2006; Zhang and He 2006; Duan and Zhang 2011; Arakeri et al. 2012; Yan et al. 2013; Xiang et al. 2014; Dai et al. 2016; Han et al. 2017). Especially in the case of condylar head fractures (CHFs or diacapitular fractures), which are known to be often treated conservatively by most maxillofacial surgeons all over the world, these findings may advocate indication for open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF), and most importantly for soft tissue repair, in order to prevent joint ankylosis and decrease the risk of future functional issues, as well as to address signs and symptoms related to the fracture itself (joint noises, mandibular deflection on opening).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Caldarelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paolo Busolli
    • 2
  • Giacomo Paolo Vaudano
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology and Maxillofacial SurgerySan Giovanni Bosco HospitalTurinItaly
  2. 2.NeuroradiologySan Giovanni Bosco HospitalTurinItaly

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