Advertisement

Public and Private Veterinary Services in West and Central Africa: Policy Failures and Opportunities

  • Mahamat Fayiz Abakar
  • Vessaly Kallo
  • Adam Hassan Yacoub
  • Alhadj Mahamat Souleyman
  • Esther SchellingEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The livestock sector in most African countries, in particular in the Sahel region, remains underexploited. It is traditionally managed in pastoralist systems that best guarantee the environmental sustainability of the arid and semi-arid grasslands, which can be hardly used for agriculture. However, pastoralists are vulnerable to exclusion to social services because they are remote to educational and political centres. The majority of livestock, however, are kept in mixed crop–livestock systems in which livestock have multiple roles such as producing food, generating income, providing manure, producing power, being financial instruments and enhancing social status. Livestock breeding faces many challenges and constraints including transboundary animal diseases (TADs) and increasing waves of droughts due to climate change as well as politically and economically instable states. Despite that Sahelian livestock owners have robust empirical methods to protect their basis of livelihood—their livestock—they need and appreciate quality medicines, vaccines and veterinary services.

Operational veterinary services are at the heart of controlling important livestock diseases to reduce impacts on livelihoods. There are effective control measures such as anthrax vaccination of livestock that also safeguard human health. Veterinary services are equally at the heart of early detection of TADs and surveillance and response to epidemic and zoonotic diseases. But how can the services, composed of public and private veterinarians, veterinary technicians, community animal health workers and outreach services, meat inspectors and monitoring/surveillance professionals, better ensure and satisfy the needs of livestock owners, their families and other stakeholders such as public health and rural development? Which roles do international and national policies play?

We review the status of veterinary services in the Sahel over the last 20 years and relate their provided services to overarching policy changes such as the privatisation of veterinary services and external funding schemes and programmes. We conclude on new ways forward such as implementation of intersectoral collaborations of professionals in remote Sahelian zones and needed operational research in optimising services.

Keywords

Public and private veterinary services Livestock systems International and national policy changes West and Central Africa 

References

  1. Abakar MF, et al. Trends in health surveillance and joint service delivery for pastoralists in West and Central Africa. The future of pastoralism (J. Zinsstag, E. Schelling & B. Bonfoh, eds). Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 2016;35(2):683–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahuja V. The economic rationale of public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services. Rev Sci Tech. 2004;23(1):33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arditi C, Lainé F. Evaluation du processus de privatisation des services de santé animale au Tchad—Rapport de mission. Tchad: N’Djaména; 1999.Google Scholar
  4. AU-IBAR. Rapport final du Programme Panafricaine de Contrôle des Epizooties, PACE, BIRA-UA, Décembre 2010. 2010.Google Scholar
  5. Bank TW. People, pathogens and our planet: the economics of one health. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2012.Google Scholar
  6. Bonfoh, B, et al. Sustainable natural resources management in semi-arid and high land low land contexts: hindering and supporting framework conditions. 2008.Google Scholar
  7. Bonfoh B, et al. Human health hazards associated with livestock production. In: Livestock in a changing landscape, vol. 1; 2010. p. 197–220.Google Scholar
  8. Bourzat, D, Veronique B, Vincent B. Rapport de mission PVS/OIE au Tchad, Novembre 2013. 2013.Google Scholar
  9. Catley A. Methods on the move: a review of veterinary uses of participatory approaches and methods focussing on experiences in dryland Africa. London: International Institute for Environment and Development; 1999. p. 1–97.Google Scholar
  10. Catley A, Blakeway S, Leyland T. Community-based animal healthcare. London: ITDG Publishing; 2002. p. 1–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Catley A, Leyland T, Bishop S. Policies, practice and participation in complex emergencies: the case of livestock interventions in South Sudan. 2005. Alan Shawn Feinstein International Famine Centre, Tufts University.Google Scholar
  12. de Haan C. Introduction: the provision of animal health services in a changing world. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 2004;23(1):15–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Haan C, et al. Livestock development, implications for rural poverty, the environment and global food security. In: Directions in development. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2001.Google Scholar
  14. Dean AS, et al. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e75570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DGSV, T. Plan National Stratégique de contrôle et d’éradication de la PPR au Tchad, Direction Générale des Services Vétérinaires. 2017.Google Scholar
  16. DSV, T. Dossier du Tchad adressé à l’OIE pour l’obtention du statut de pays indemne de peste bovine, Direction des Services Vétérinaires, Août 2005. 2005.Google Scholar
  17. FAO. The state of food and agriculture: livestock in the balance. Rome: FAO; 2009.Google Scholar
  18. FAO. FAOSTAT stocks West Africa. 2016.Google Scholar
  19. Félix N. Stratégie mondiale de contrôle et d’éradication de la PPR. In: Secrétariat permanent FAO/OIE pour le GCES-PPR: Exposé du Dr N. Félix à l’atelier de Douala, Juillet 2016. Cameroun: Douala; 2016.Google Scholar
  20. ILRI. Livestock—a pathway out of poverty, ILRI ‘s strategy to 2010. 2010.Google Scholar
  21. Johnston C. Lessons from medical ethics. In: Wathes CM, et al., editors. Veterinary & animal ethics. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.Google Scholar
  22. Krätli S. Discontinuity in pastoral development: time to update the method. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 2016;35(2):485–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leonard DK. Africa’s changing markets for health and veterinary services—the new institutional issues. London: MacMillan; 2000.Google Scholar
  24. Leonard DK. Tools from the new institutional economics for reforming the delivery of veterinary services. Rev Sci Tech. 2004;23(1):47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ly C, Fall A, Okike I. West Africa—the livestock sector in need of regional strategies. In: Gerber P, Mooney HA, Dijkmann J, editors. Livestock in a changing landscape: experiences and regional perspectives. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2010. p. 27–54.Google Scholar
  26. Nahar MT. La santé des pasteurs nomades: une nécessaire collaboration entre vétérinaires privés et services de santé. Sem Ther. 2000;8:108–12.Google Scholar
  27. OIE. Terrestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 3.2. 2006.Google Scholar
  28. OIE. Code sanitaire pour les animaux terrestres, Organisation Mondiale de la santé Animale (OIE). 25ème édition ed. 2016.Google Scholar
  29. Okello A, Vandersmissen A, Welburn SC. One health into action: integrating global health governance with national priorities in a globalized world. In: Zinsstag J, et al., editors. One health: the theory and practice of integrated health approaches. Oxfordshire: CABI; 2015. p. 283–303.Google Scholar
  30. Perry B, Randolph TF, McDermott J. In: Ilri NK, editor. Investing in animal health research to alleviate poverty; 2002.Google Scholar
  31. Pradere JP. Poor livestock producers, the environment and the paradoxes of development policies. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 2017.Google Scholar
  32. Randolph TF, et al. Invited review: role of livestock in human nutrition and health for poverty reduction in developing countries. J Anim Sci. 2007;85(11):2788–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Riviere-Cinnamond, A Animal health policy and practice: scaling-up community-based animal health systems, lessons from human health. 2005. Available from http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/pplpi/docarc/wp22.pdf Google Scholar
  34. Roesel K, Grace D. Food saftety and informal markets—animal products in Sub-Sahran Africa. London: Routledge; 2015.Google Scholar
  35. Schelling E, Kimani T. Human and animal health response capacity and costs: a rapid appraisal of the 2007 rift valley fever outbreak in Kenya. Nairobi: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 2007.Google Scholar
  36. Schelling E, et al. Synergy between public health and veterinary services to deliver human and animal health interventions in rural low income settings. BMJ. 2005:1264–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Simpkin SP. Livestock study in the greater horn of Africa. Nairobi Delegation: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); 2005. p. 1–227.Google Scholar
  38. Stephen C, Waltner-Toews D. Non-governmental organizations. In: Zinsstag J, et al., editors. One health: the theory and practice of integrated health approaches. Oxfordshire, London: CABI; 2015. p. 385–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. SWAC-OECD/ECOWAS. Livestock and regional market in the Sahel and West Africa: potentials and challenges. 2008.Google Scholar
  40. The World Bank. People, pathogens and our planet. Volume 1: towards a one health approach for controlling zoonotic diseases. Washington DC: The World Bank. Agriculture and Rural Development Health, Nutrition and Population; 2010.Google Scholar
  41. Zezza A, et al. Rural household access to assets and agrarian institutions: a cross country comparison. Rome: Agricultural and Development Economics Division, FAO; 2007.Google Scholar
  42. Zinsstag J, et al. From “one medicine” to “one health” and systemic approaches to health and well-being. Prev Vet Med. 2011;101:148–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zinsstag J, Schelling E, Waltner-Toews D, Whittaker M, Tanner M. One health: the added value of integrated health approaches. Oxfordshire: CABI; 2015.Google Scholar
  44. Zinsstag J, et al. A vision for the future of pastoralism. Rev Sci Tech. 2016;35(2):693–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahamat Fayiz Abakar
    • 1
  • Vessaly Kallo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Adam Hassan Yacoub
    • 4
  • Alhadj Mahamat Souleyman
    • 4
  • Esther Schelling
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Institut de Recherche en Elevage pour le Développement (IRED)N’DjamenaChad
  2. 2.Direction des Services VétérinairesAbidjanCôte d’Ivoire
  3. 3.Ecole Inter-Etas des Sciences et de Médicine VétérinaireDakarSenegal
  4. 4.Ministère de l’Elevage et des Productions AnimalesN’DjamenaChad
  5. 5.Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)BaselSwitzerland
  6. 6.University of BaselBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations