Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Urban South Africa
- 442 Downloads
While social and economic considerations are key concerns driving development in South Africa, successful sustainable development cannot occur without understanding the potential implications of how the climate and environment are changing. With a growing number of people migrating to and residing in urban areas it is becoming ever more pressing that urban vulnerabilities and climate adaptation be understood in light of development challenges. The purpose of this chapter is to track the progress made to date with regards to vulnerability assessments, adaptation planning and adaptation implementation in urban areas in South Africa. Although climate adaptation is relatively new on the policy and practice agenda, initiatives have been developing rapidly. This chapter reviews the work in the context of South African urban areas and highlights the potential gaps in knowledge. It provides an overview of the urban response to climate change in a developing world context where a growing urban population and the need for increased development place an already significant degree of pressure on the environment as a resource subject to change.
KeywordsSustainability Development Vulnerability Climate change
- Academy of Science South Africa. (2017). First biennial report to cabinet on the state of climate change science technology in South Africa.Google Scholar
- Burton, I., White, G., & Kates, R. (1978). Environment as Hazard. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Cartwright, A., Blignaut, J., De Wit, M., Goldberg, K., Mander, M., O’Donoghue, S., et al. (2013). Economics of climate change adaptation at the local scale under conditions of uncertainty and resource constraints: The case of Durban, South Africa. Environment and Urbanization, 25(1), 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- City of Johannesburg. (2009). City of Johannesburg climate change adaptation plan. Retrieved from https://www.preventionweb.net/files/38589_38507climatechangeadaptationplancit.pdf.
- Department of Environmental Affairs. (2011). National climate change response white paper. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/legislations/national_climatechange_response_whitepaper.pdf.
- Department of Environmental Affairs. (2013). The national climate change response policy: Towards implementation of the national climate change response strategy. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/overview_nccr_implementation_framework.pdf.
- Department of Environmental Affairs. (2014). The department of environmental affairs hosts the climate change breakfast briefing. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/mediarelease/climatechange_breakfastbriefing.
- Department of Environmental Affairs. (2017). South Africa’s third national communication under the united nations framework convention on climate change. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/reports/draftsouthafricas3rdnationalcommunication_unfccc2017.pdf.
- Douwes, J. (2018). Exploring transformation in local government in a time of environmental change and thresholds: A case study of eThekwini municipality (Masters thesis), University of KwaZulu Natal.Google Scholar
- Earthlife Africa. (2016). Earthlife Africa. Retrieved from http://earthlife.org.za/campaigns/climate-change/.
- Eden District Municipality. (2016). Eden district municipality—Eden DM climate change adaptation plan. Retrieved from http://www.edendm.co.za/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=6&func=startdown&id=1718.
- eThekwini Municipality. (2011). Durban’s municipal climate protection programme: Climate change planning for a resilient city. Retrieved from http://www.durban.gov.za/City_Services/development_planning_management/environmentalplanning_climate_protection/Publications/Documents/Durbans%20Municipal%20Climate%20Protection%20Programme_Climate%20Chan.pdf.
- Failing, W. (2012). A spatial planning perspective on climate change, asset adaptation and food security. In B. Frayne & G. Ziervogel (Eds.), Climate change, assets and food security in Southern African cities (pp. 163–185). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Food & Trees for Africa. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.trees.co.za/.
- GIZ. (2016). Local government climate change support program. Retrieved from http://www.redirect1.gpg.gov.za/gchip/Forum/12Aug2016_GIZ_Local%20Government%20Climate%20Change%20Support%20Program.pdf.
- Greenpop—Planting Trees & Educating for Action. (2018). Retrieved from https://greenpop.org/.
- ICLEI Local Governments for sustainability. (2012a). Building climate resilience: Retrofitting as an adaptation option for the city of Cape Town, South Africa. Retrieved from http://www.resilientafrica.org/Resources/Final%20Resources/Final%20Handbooks/Cape%20Town%20adaptation%20handbook.pdf.
- ICLEI Local Governments for sustainability. (2012b). EThekwini (Durban), South Africa A municipality’s climate protection program. Retrieved from http://www.gbcsa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/ICLEI-Ethekweni-Durban-Muncipalitys-climate-protection-program-April-2012.pdf.
- IPCC. 2014. Summary for policymakers. In C. B. Field et al., (Eds), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaption, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kirby, A. (2014). 3 African regions at high risk from climate change. Retrieved from http://www.climatecentral.org/news/climate-hotspots-imperil-parts-of-africa-17417.
- Madzwamuse, M. (2010). Climate change vulnerability and adaptation preparedness in South Africa. Document Prepared for Heinrich Böll Stiftung Southern Africa.Google Scholar
- McCarthy, J. J., climat, G. d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du, Change, I. P. on C., II, I. P. on C. C. W. G., Canziani, O. F., Leary, N. A., White, K. S. (2001). In Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Midgley, G.., Chapman, R. A., Hewitson, B., Johnston, P., De Wit, M., Ziervogel, G., …, Forsyth, G.. (2005). A Status Quo, vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the physical and socio-economic effects of climate change in the Western Cape, report to the Western Cape government (No. Report No. ENV-S-C 2005-073). Cape Town, South Africa: Stellenbosch, CSIR.Google Scholar
- Musungu, K., Motala, S., & Smit, J. (2012). Using multi-criteria evaluation and GIS for flood risk analysis in informal settlements of Cape Town: The case of Graveyard Po. South African Journal of Geomatics, 1, 15.Google Scholar
- Roberts, D., Boon, R., Diederichs, N., Douwes, E., Govender, N., Mcinnes, A., et al. (2012). Exploring ecosystem-based adaptation in Durban, South Africa: “Learning-by-doing” at the local government coal face. Environment and Urbanization, 24, 167–195. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247811431412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scott, D., & Taylor, A. (2019). Receptivity and judgement: Expanding ways of knowing the climate to strengthen the resilience of cities. London: Springer.Google Scholar
- Taylor, A., Cartwright, A., & Sutherland, C. (2014). Institutional pathways for local climate adaptation: A comparison of three South African municipalities. Retrieved from https://www.africancentreforcities.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/FocalesN18_GB_WEB.pdf.
- Victorian Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Research. (2014). Victorian Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Research. Retrieved from http://www.vcccar.org.au/climate-change-adaptation-definitions.
- White, G. (1973). Natural Hazards research. In R. J. Chorley (ed.), Directions in geography. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
- Ziervogel, G., New, M., Archer van Garderen, E., Midgley, G., Taylor, A., Hamann, R., et al. (2014). Climate change impacts and adaptation in South Africa: Climate change impacts in South Africa. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 5, 605–620.Google Scholar
- Ziervogel, G., & Parnell, S. (2014). Tackling barriers to climate change adaptation in South African coastal cities. In B. C. Glavovic & G. P. Smith (Eds.), Adapting to climate change. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Ziervogel, G., & Smit, W. (2009). Learning to swim: Strengthening flooding governance in the City of Cape Town. In Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: ‘Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet’, Amsterdam.Google Scholar