Dry Eye Disease: A Modern History

  • Michael A. Lemp
  • Gary N. Foulks


One of the most common disorders of the ocular surface is dry eye disease (DED). A historical perspective of our understanding of DED can be captured in seven thematic areas. Structure and function of the components of the tear film and ocular surface and the lacrimal functional unit provide the basic information. The hallmarks of DED are tear instability and hyperosmolarity. The role of inflammation in DED and the neurobiological aspects of the ocular surface are important to understanding the vicious cycle of the disease. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of DED provide novel appreciation of DED.


Dry eye disease Lacrimal functional unit Tear instability Tear hyperosmolarity Ocular surface inflammation Aqueous tear deficiency Evaporative tear deficiency 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Lemp
    • 1
  • Gary N. Foulks
    • 2
  1. 1.Georgetown University, Department of OphthalmologyLake WalesUSA
  2. 2.University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision ScienceWilmingtonUSA

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