Advertisement

Permission to Hate in Canada

  • Barbara PerryEmail author
  • Ryan Scrivens
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Hate Studies book series (PAHS)

Abstract

This chapter highlights the social, cultural and political landscape in which organized hate groups emerge in Canada. Here, our focus is on the social contexts that enable such groups to flourish. We first lay out the theoretical frame to understand how broader social, cultural and political patterns render “permission to hate” in Canada. We consider the environmental factors that we identified, during our fieldwork, as particularly important in facilitating right-wing extremism (RWE) in Canada. In contrast, we end by drawing attention to those countervailing environmental patterns and processes that might constrain groups from emerging and/or engaging in extremist violence.

References

  1. Ameli, S., & Merali, A. (2014). Only Canadian: The Experience of Hate Moderated Differential Citizenship for Muslims. Wembley: Islamic Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  2. Bahdi, R. (2003). No Exit: Racial Profiling and Canada’s War Against Terrorism. Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 41(1–2), 293–316.Google Scholar
  3. Benford, R., & Snow, D. (2000). Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boutilier, A. (2015, March 15). CSIS Highlights White Supremacist Threat Ahead of Radical Islam. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2015/03/15/csis-highlights-white-supremacist-threat-ahead-of-radical-islam.html.
  5. Canadian Council on American-Islamic Relations. (2005). Presumption of Guilt: A National Survey on Security Visitations of Canadian Muslims. Retrieved from http://www.caircan.ca/downloads/POG-08062005.pdf.
  6. Chermak, S., Freilich, J., & Shemtob, Z. (2010). Law Enforcement Training and the Domestic Far Right. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(12), 1305–1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. City of Lethbridge. (2010). Building Bridges: A Welcoming and Inclusive Lethbridge—Community Action Plan 2011–2021. Retrieved from http://www.lethbridge.ca/living-here/Our-Community/documents/community%20action%20plan%202011-2021%20-%20building%20bridges%20-%20a%20welcoming%20and%20inclusive%20community.pdf.
  8. Clement, D., & Vaugeois, R. (2013). The Search for Justice and Equality: Alberta’s Human Rights History. Edmonton: John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights.Google Scholar
  9. Comack, E. (2012). Racialized Policing: Aboriginal People’s Encounters with the Police. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Geddes, J. (2009, April 28). What Canadians Think of Sikhs, Jews, Christians, Muslims. Maclean’s. Retrieved from http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/what-canadians-think-of-sikhs-jews-christians-muslims.
  11. Government of Alberta. (2011). Demographic Spotlight: The Visible Minority Population: Recent Trends in Alberta and Canada. Edmonton: Government of Alberta, Demography Unit.Google Scholar
  12. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Graves, F. (2015, March 12). The EKOS Poll: Are Canadians Getting More Racist? iPolitics. Retrieved from https://ipolitics.ca/2015/03/12/the-ekos-poll-are-canadians-getting-more-racist.
  14. Hall, N. (2012). Policing Hate in London and New York City: Some Reflections on the Factors Influencing Effective Law Enforcement, Service Provision and Public Trust and Confidence. International Review of Victimology, 18, 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heitmeyer, W. (2005). Right-Wing Terrorism. In T. Bjorgo (Ed.), Root Causes of Terrorism: Myths, Reality and Ways Forward (pp. 141–153). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. hooks, b. (1994). Outlaw Culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. hooks, b. (1995). Killing Rage: Ending Racism. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  18. Huber, L. P. (2016). Make America Great Again: Donald Trump, Racist Nativism and the Virulent Adherence to White Supremacy Amid US Demographic Change. Charleston Law Review, 10, 215.Google Scholar
  19. Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2016). Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash (Harvard Kennedy School Faculty Working Paper Series RWP16-026).Google Scholar
  20. Komaromi, P., & Singh, K. (2016). Post-referendum Racism and Xenophobia: The Role of Social Media Activism in Challenging the Normalisation of Xeno-Racist Narratives. London: Institute of Race Relations.Google Scholar
  21. Kundnani, A. (2012). Blind Spot? Security Narratives and Far-Right Violence in Europe. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lehr, P. (2013). Still Blind in the Right Eye? A Comparison of German Responses to Political Violence from the Extreme Left and the Extreme Right. In M. Taylor, D. Holbrook, & P. M. Currie (Eds.), Extreme Right Wing Political Violence and Terrorism (pp. 187–214). London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  23. Lund, D. (2006). Social Justice Activism in the Heartland of Hate: Countering Extremism in Alberta. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 52(2), 181–194.Google Scholar
  24. Mallea, P. (2011). Fearmonger: Stephen Harper’s Tough-On-Crime Agenda. Toronto, ON: James Lorimer & Company.Google Scholar
  25. McDonald, M. (2011). The Armageddon Factor: The Rise of Christian Nationalism in Canada (2nd ed.). Toronto: Vintage.Google Scholar
  26. Montpetit, J. (2016a, September 5). Quebec’s Charter of Values, Revisited. CBC News Montreal. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/caq-quebec-charter-of-values-identity-politics-1.3748084.
  27. Montpetit, J. (2016b, December 14). Inside Quebec’s Far Right: Soldiers of Odin Leadership Shake-Up Signals Return to Extremist Roots. CBC News Montreal. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/quebec-far-right-soldiers-of-odin-1.3896175.
  28. Perliger, A. (2012). Challengers from the Sidelines: Understanding America’s Far Right. West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center.Google Scholar
  29. Perry, B. (2008). Silent Victims: Hate Crime Against Native Americans. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  30. Perry, B. (2009). Policing Race and Place: Under- and Over-Policing in Indian Country. Lanham, MD: Lexington Press.Google Scholar
  31. Perry, B., & Alvi, S. (2011). “We Are All Vulnerable:” The in Terrorem Effects of Hate Crime. International Review of Victimology, 18(1), 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Perry, B., Hofmann, D. C., & Scrivens, R. (2017). Broadening Our Understanding of Anti-authority Movements in Canada (The Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society Working Paper Series).Google Scholar
  33. Perry, B., Hofmann, D. C., & Scrivens, R. (2018). “Confrontational but Not Violent”: An Assessment of the Potential for Violence by the Anti-Authority Community in Canada. Terrorism and Political Violence. Ahead of Print, 1–21.Google Scholar
  34. Public Safety Canada. (2013). 2013 Public Report on the Terrorist Threat to Canada. Retrieved from http://www.securitepublique.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/trrrst-thrt-cnd/trrrst-thrt-cnd-eng.pdf.
  35. Ray, L., & Smith, D. (2002). Racist Violence as Hate Crime. Criminal Justice Matters, 48, 6–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stern, K. (1992). Politics and Bigotry. New York, NY: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  37. Tanner, S., & Campana, A. (2014). The Process of Radicalization: Right Wing Skinheads in Quebec (No. 14-07). Vancouver: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.Google Scholar
  38. Welliver, D. M. (2004). Afterword: Finding and Fighting Hate Where It Lives: Reflections of a Pennsylvania Practitioner. In C. Flint (Ed.), Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. (pp. 245–254). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Woods, A. (2015, March 24). Islam Needs to Reform or Leave, Says Canadian Leader of PEGIDA Movement. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2015/03/24/islam-needs-to-reform-or-leave-says-canadian-leader-of-pegida-movement.html.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social Science and HumanitiesUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada
  2. 2.School of Criminal JusticeMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations