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Biocatalysis pp 83-112 | Cite as

Cross-linked Enzyme Aggregates: Current Developments and Applications

  • Rubia Noori
  • Mohammad Perwez
  • Meryam SardarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Enhanced performance of enzyme is the major challenge which restricts their applications in industrial processes. Different strategies have been proposed to increase their lifetime/performance, they are (1) isolation of novel enzymes which can function under extreme conditions, (2) modifications of enzyme structure to increase their resistance i.e. protein engineering and (3) modification of the solvent environment. However, immobilization, an old technique is still considered as a very powerful tool to improve enzyme properties. In this review, we are presenting a detailed discourse of cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA), as a new method of immobilization. CLEA technology involves precipitation of enzymes using organic solvents followed by cross-linking the precipitated enzymes using a crosslinker. Several additives like starch, bovine serum albumin and polyamines are used to provide additional cross-linking sites for better stability. An appropriate precipitant is required for CLEA formation for a selected enzyme, therefore screening of precipitant is needed which depends on the nature of the enzymes. Optimization of organic solvents, cross-linking concentration and incubation time is a must for optimum performance of CLEA. It shows high stability, reusability and acts as a better catalyst in terms of performance. Furthermore, this technology can be used for the preparation of combi-CLEA using two or more enzymes. It can be a great tool for stabilizing enzymes to improve their overall performance which can be exploited in industries for chemical transformations.

Keywords

CLEA combi-CLEA Glutaraldehyde Cross linker Precipitant Magnetic-CLEA Immobilization Biocatalyst 

Notes

Glossary

°C

Degree Celsius

APTES

3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

CaLBCLEA

Candida antarctica B Cross-linked enzyme aggregates

CEM

CLEA-based enzyme microreactor

CLE

Cross linked enzymes

CLEAs

Cross-linked enzyme aggregates

CLEC

Cross linked enzyme crystals

DB-38

Direct Black-38

DtHNL-CLEAs

Davallia tyermannii Hydroxynitrile lyase Cross-linked enzyme aggregates

EDC

Endocrine disrupting chemicals

FAEEs

Fatty acid ethyl esters

FAPEs

Fatty acid propyl esters

GO

Glucose oxidase

HRP

Horseradish peroxidase

L-DOPA

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine

m-CLEAs

MagneticCross-linked enzyme aggregates

Mg/L/hr.

Milligram/litre/hour

mM

Millimolar

MNPs

Magnetic nanoparticles

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

PAL-CLEAs

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase- cross-linked enzyme aggregates

PSL-CLEA

Pseudomonassp. Lipase Cross-linked enzyme aggregates

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulphate

SEM

Scanning Electron Microscopy

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia

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