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Oxidoreductases: Overview and Practical Applications

  • Hina YounusEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, a description of the oxidoreductases class of enzymes has been given. Further, their practical applications are discussed for the purpose of industrial utilization of these enzymes. These versatile biological catalysts belong to a large group of enzymes which catalyze oxidoreduction reactions. Oxidoreductases catalyze the exchange of electrons between the donor and acceptor molecules, in reactions involving electron transfer, proton/hydrogen extraction, hydride transfer, oxygen insertion, or other important steps. These are ubiquitous in nature and catalyze a vast range of chemical reactions with high specificity, efficiency, and selectivity. Majority of oxidoreductases are nicotinamide cofactor-dependent enzymes which have a high preference for NAD or NADP. They are further classified in six major classes which are oxidases, dehydrogenases, hydroxylases, oxygenases, peroxidases and reductases. These enzymes have various redox-active centres for performing their functions. Oxidoreductase based catalysis fits well for industrial applications due to their biodegradability, specificity and efficiency, and therefore these enzymes are currently being utilized in the field of textiles, medicine, food and for chemical synthesis. They are being applied for: lignocellulosics biotransformation, carbohydrates derivatization, food and beverage improvement, dairy applications, environment protection, organic synthesis, nanomaterial and polymer synthesis, medicinal synthesis, and for other synthetic applications. Herein, a detailed description of these applications is given. Oxidoreductases may be used as better biocatalysts to replace the toxic/expensive chemicals, save on energy/resources consumption, create novel functionalities, or reduce adverse impacts on the environment. The application of these enzymes to new manufacturing areas is important for the future growth of industrial oxidoreductase biocatalysts.

Keywords

Catalysis Oxidoreductase Biotransformation Commercial applications 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Biotechnology UnitAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

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