While Muslims were defined by Erasmus as “half-Christians,” Jews were nowhere defined by him in this way, except for Jews who converted to Christianity. Thus, in Erasmus’ mind, a convert from Islam to Christianity became entirely Christian and was to be ranked theologically higher than a convert from Judaism. Erasmus’ hierarchy of peoples and races was as follows: populus Christianus was at the top. Second were “half-Christians,” i.e., Turks/Muslims. Below them were Jews. Lower were black Africans. Erasmus’ classification has inevitable racial manifestations and implications. Such was the view that black Africans, believed to be the “sons of Ham,” were blackened by their sins. Such was also the ongoing marginalization or discrimination of converts from Judaism to Christianity.