Advertisement

Microbial Escalation in Meat and Meat Products and Its Consequences

  • Mohammad Anas
  • Saghir Ahmad
  • Abdul Malik
Chapter

Abstract

Microorganisms are present everywhere, they play serviceable and detrimental role in various ways; deteriorate the basic needs of human life, escalation of their population in foods hamper the shelf-life of food and cause illness in humans. Among all foods, meat and meat products are staple food which are used worldwide. Meat and meat products are well known for their high nutritional values as they contain good amount of proteins which comprise of essential amino acids with high biological value. Meat is also rich in vitamin B complex and several important minerals like iron, magnesium and zinc. Being an excellent medium; meat and meat products favour the growth of a variety of microbial flora such as bacteria yeast and molds, few of them are pathogens. Under aerobic condition bacterial population grow and spoil the meat. Meat spoilage is commonly caused by the bacteria like Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, members of Enterobacteriaceae family, and Lactic acid bacteria etc., which alter the component of meat and meat products continuously, thus leading to adverse changes in sensory characteristics such as appearance, odour, texture and flavour as well as acceptable qualities. This chapter summarizes cause of spoilage of meat and meat products in order to develop optimum preservation techniques to keep up the freshness of meat and meat products. The chapter also gives insights about how microbes deteriorate the nutritional, sensory and textural qualities of meat and hamper the shelf life.

Keywords

Meat and meat products Microbial escalation Spoilage Preservation Sensory properties 

References

  1. Adam KH, Flint SH, Brightwell G (2010) Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic clostridia: sporulation and germination processes and their role in the spoilage of chilled, vacuum-packaged beef, lamb and venison. Int J Food Sci Technol 45:1539–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adzitey F (2011) Effect of pre-slaughter animal handling on carcass and meat quality. Int. Food Res. J. 18(2)Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez D, Barbut S (2013) Effect of inulin, b-Glucan and their mixtures on emulsion stability, colour and textural parameters of cooked meat batters. Meat Sci 94:320–327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ando M, Takenaga E, Hamase S, Yamane A (2005) Effect of super-chilling storage on maintenance of quality and freshness of swordtip squid Loligo edulis. Food Sci Technol Res 11:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Casaburi A, Piombino P, Nychas G-J, Villani F, Ercolini D (2015) Bacterial populations and the volatilome associated to meat spoilage. Food Microbiol 45:83–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arvanitoyannis I, Stratakos A (2012) Application of modified atmosphere packaging and active/smart technologies to red meat and poultry: a review. Food Bioprocess Techol 5:1423–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Audenaert K, Haene KD, Messens K, Ruyssen T, Vandamme P, Huys G (2010) Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell by date assessed by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Food Microbiol 27:218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arul KT, Saravanan S (2011) Assessment of contamination in chicken meat by food borne Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Res Pure Appl Microbiol 1:59–60Google Scholar
  9. Axelsson LT (2008) Lactic acid bacteria: classification and physiology. In: Salminen S, Von Wright A, Ouwehand A (eds) Lactic acid bacteria microbiology and functional aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 19–66Google Scholar
  10. Aymerich MT, Garriga M, Costa S, Monfort JM, Hugas M (2002) Prevention of rosiness in cooked pork by bacteriocinogenic cultures. Int Dairy J 12:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bahuaud D, Mørkøre T, Langsrud Ø, Sinnes K, Veiseth E (2008) Effects of −1.5°C super-chilling on quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-rigor fillets: cathepsin activity, muscle histology. Texture liquid leakage. Food Chem 111:329–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brightwell G, Clemens R, Urlich S, Boerema J (2007) Possible involvement of psychrotolerant Enterobacteriaceae in blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packed raw meats. Int J Food Microbiol 119:334–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruckner S, Albrecht A, Petersen B, Kreyenschmidt J (2012) Characterization and comparison of spoilage processes in fresh pork and poultry. J Food Qual 35:372–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calo JR, Crandall PG, O'Bryan CA, Ricke SC (2015) Essential oils as antimicrobials in food systems—a review. Food Control 54:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. CenciGoga BT (2012) Fattori che influenzano la crescita e la sopravvivenza dei microrganismi negli alimenti. In: Colavita G (ed) Igiene e Tecnologie degli alimenti di origine animale. Le Point Vétérinaire Italie Ed, Milano, p 1925Google Scholar
  16. Clarence SY, Nwinyi O and Chinedu SN (2009) Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food (Meat pie) in Benin City metropolis, Nigeria. African J. Microbiol. Res. 3(6): 390–395Google Scholar
  17. Comaposada J, Gou P, Arnau J (2000) The effect of sodium chloride content and temperature on pork meat isotherms. Meat Sci 55:291–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dan SD, Tabaran A, Mihaiu L and Mihaiu M (2015) Antibiotic susceptibility and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in poultry meat in Romania. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries 9(01): 035–041Google Scholar
  19. Davidson PM, Sofos JN, Branen AL (2005) Antimicrobials in food, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 12–17, 29, 68, 116,151, 460–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diwan J (2007) Glycolysis and fermentation. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, TroyGoogle Scholar
  21. Domíngueza R, Barbab FJ, Gómeza B, Putnikc P, Kovačevićc DB, Pateiroa M, Santosd EM, Lorenzoa JM (2018) Active packaging films with natural antioxidants fi to be used in meat industry: a review. Food Res Int 113:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Doulgeraki AI, Paramithiotis S, Kagkli DM and Nychas GJE (2010) Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during minced beef storage under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging conditions. Food microbiol 27(8):1028–1034Google Scholar
  23. Doulgeraki AI, Paramithiotis S Nychas GJE (2011) Characterization of the Enterobacteriaceae community that developed during storage of minced beef under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging conditions. Int. j. food microbial 145(1):77–83Google Scholar
  24. Doulgeraki AI, Ercolini D, Villani F, Nychas GJ (2012) Spoilage microbiota associated to the storage of raw meat in different conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 157:130–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Elbarbary HA, Abdou AM, Park EY, Nakamura Y, Mohamed HA, Sato K (2010) Novel antibacterial lactoferrin peptides generated by rennet digestion and autofocusing technique. Int. dairy j. 20(9):646–651Google Scholar
  26. Ercolini D, Ferrocino I, La Storia A, Mauriello G, Gigli S, Masi P, Villani F (2010) Development of spoilage microbiota in beef stored in nisin activated packaging. Food Microbiol 27:137–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ercolini D, Ferrocino I, Nasi A, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, La Storia A, Laghi L, Mauriello G, Guerzoni ME, Villani F (2011) Monitoring of microbial metabolites and bacterial diversity in beef stored in different packaging conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7372–7381CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Ercolini D, La Storia A, Mauriello G, Villani F (2006b) Effect of a bacteriocin-activated polythene film on Listeria monocytogenes as evaluated by viable staining and epifluorescence microscopy. J Appl Microbiol 100:765–772CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ercolini D, Russo F, Blaiotta G, Pepe O, Mauriello G, Villani F (2007) Simultaneous detection of Pseudomonas fragi, P. lundensis, and P. putida from meat by use of a multiplex PCR assay targeting the car A gene. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:2354–2359CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Ercolini D, Russo F, Nasi A, Ferranti P, Villani F (2009) Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria from meat and their spoilage potential in vitro and in beef. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1990–2001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Ercolini D, Russo F, Torrieri E, Masi P, Villani F (2006a) Changes in the spoilage related microbiota of beef during refrigerated storage under different packaging conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:4663–4671CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Featherstone S (2003) Food hygiene-not for sissies. Food Review 30:49Google Scholar
  33. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). Agents of foodborne illness, 2nd edn. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/publications/Pages/agentsoffoodborneill5155.aspx. Accessed 4 Mar 2014
  34. Fontana C, Cocconcelli PS, Vignolo G (2006) Direct molecular approach to monitoring bacterial colonization on vacuum-packaged beef. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5618–5622CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Gram L, Daglaard P (2002) Fish spoilage bacteria-problems and solutions. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13:262–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gram L, Ravn L, Rasch M, Bruhn JB, Christensen AB, Givskov M (2002) Food spoilage-interactions between food spoilage bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 78:79–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hansen E, Juncher D, Henckel P, Karlsson A, Bertelsen G (2004) Oxidative stability of chilled pork chops following long term freeze storage. Meat Sci 68:479–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Heinz G, Hautzinger P (2007) Meat processing technology. For small-to medium scale producers. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Accessed 1 June 2010Google Scholar
  39. ICLPP (2006) Meat, poultry and seafood: applications of food phosphates. ICL Performance Products LP, St. Louis, MO. http://www.iclperfproductslp.comGoogle Scholar
  40. Leonard B (2011) Fish and fishery products: hazards and controls guidance, 4th edn. Diane Publ. Co., Darby, PAGoogle Scholar
  41. Magnussen OM, Haugland A, Torstveit AK, Hemmingsen S, Johansen TS (2008) Advances in super chilling of food-process characteristics and product quality. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:418–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maka L, Popowska M (2016) Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food. Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 67(4)Google Scholar
  43. Martin A, Benito MJ, Aranda E, Mayano SR, Cordoba J, Cordoba MG (2010) Characterization by volatile compounds of microbial deep spoilage in Iberian dry-cured ham. J Food Sci 75:360–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marriot NG, Schilling MW (2004) Dry cured pork research review white paper. In Proceedings of the National Country Ham Association Annual Meeting, Morehead City, NC, USA (pp. 2–4)Google Scholar
  45. Miyaguchi Y, Nagayama K, Tsutsumi M (2000) Thermal and functional properties of porcine sarcoplasmic proteins: a comparison with some water-soluble animal proteins. Anim Sci J 71(4):416–424Google Scholar
  46. Naidu AS (2000) Lactoferrin: natural multifunctional antimicrobial. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p 2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nychas GJE, Skandamis PN (2005) “Fresh meat spoilage and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).” Improving the safety of fresh meat. Wood head Publishing 461–502Google Scholar
  48. Nychas GJE, Skandamis PN, Tassou CC, Koutsoumanis KP (2008) Meat spoilage during distribution. Meat Sci 78:77–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. OECD/FAO (2016) Meat. In: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016–2025. OECD Publishing, Paris.  https://doi.org/10.1787/agr_outlook-2016-10-enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Okonko IO, Ukut OE, Ikpoh IS, Nkang AO, Udeze AO, Babalola TA, Mejeha OK, Fajobi EA (2010) Assessment of bacteriological quality of fresh meats sold in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria. Elec J Environ Agri Food Chem 9:89–100Google Scholar
  51. Omuruyi IM, Wogu MD, Eraga EM (2011) Bacteriological quality of beef contact surfaces, air microflora and wastewaters from major abattoirs located in Benin City, Southern Nigeria. Int J Biosci 1:57–62Google Scholar
  52. Osama AA, Gehan MA (2011) Effect of good manufacturing practices (GMPS) application on the bacteriological status of butchery area in small scale meat processing plant. Global Veterinaria 7:123–128Google Scholar
  53. Pennacchia C, Ercolini D, Villani F (2011) Spoilage-related microbiota associated with chilled beef stored in air or vacuum pack. Food Microbiol 28:84–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Perez-Chabela ML, Mateo-Oyague J (2004) Frozen meat: quality and shelf life. In: Hui YH, Cornillon P, Legaretta IG, Lim MH, Murrell KD, Kit Nip W (eds) Handbook of frozen foods. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, p 205Google Scholar
  55. Pin C, Garcia de Fernando GD, Ordonez JA (2002) Effect of modified atmosphere composition on the metabolism of glucose by Brochothrix thermosphacta. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:4441–4447CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Ray B, Bhunia A (2013) Fundamental food microbiology, 5th edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  57. Rahman SF (1999b) Food preservation by freezing. In: Handbook of food preservation. Rahman. S.F. (Ed). Marcel Dekker, NY, pp: 259: 262–268Google Scholar
  58. Ranken MD, Kill RC (1993) Analysis of meat and meat products. Food Industry Manual.Google Scholar
  59. Rosmini MR, Perez-Alvarez JA, Fernandez-Lopez J (2004) Operational processes for frozen red meat. In: Hui YH, Cornillon P, Legaretta IG, Lim MH, Murrell KD, Kit Nip W (eds) Handbook of frozen foods. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 177–179Google Scholar
  60. Rossaint S, Klausmann S, Kreyenschmidt J (2015) Effect of high oxygen and oxygen free modified atmosphere packaging on the spoilage process of poultry breast fillets. Poultry Sci 94:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Russo F, Ercolini D, Mauriello G, Villani F (2006) Behaviour of Brochotrix thermosphacta in the presence of other meat spoilage microbial group. Food Microbiol 23:797–802CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Samelis J (2006) Managing microbial spoilage in meat industry. In: Blackburn CW (ed) Food spoilage microorganisms. Wood Head Publishing Limited, Cambridge, pp 213–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Samelis J, Kakouri A, Rementzis J (2000) The spoilage microflora of cured, cooked turkey breasts prepared commercially with or without smoking. Int J Food Microbiol 56:133–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Sechi P, Iulietto MF, Mattei S, Novelli S, Cenci Goga BT (2014) Packaging of meat products. Page 130 in Proc. 48th Nat. Meet. Italian Society for Veterinary Sciences, Pisa, Italy (Abstr.). packaging. Food Microbiol 27:137–143Google Scholar
  65. Silva AR, Paulo EN, Sant’Ana AS, Chaves RD, Massaguer PR (2011) Involvement of Clostridium gasigenes and C. algidicarnis in ‘blown pack’ spoilage of Brazilian vacuum packed beef. Int J Food Microbiol 148:156–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Stivarius MR, Pohlman FW, McElyea KS, Waldroup AL (2002) Effects of hot water and lactic acid treatment of beef trimmings prior to grinding on microbial, instrumental color and sensory properties of ground beef during display. Meat Science, 60(4):327–334Google Scholar
  67. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bad bug book. Foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins handbook, 2nd edn. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/Food Safety/Food borne Illness/Food borne Illness Food borne Pathogens Natural Toxins/Bad Bug Book/UCM297627.pdf. Accessed 4 Mar 2014
  68. Unc A, Goss MJ (2004) Transport of bacteria from manure and protection of water resources. Appl Soil Ecol 25:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. USDA (2005) FSRE (Food Safety Regulatory Essentials) shelf-stable, principles of preservation of shelf-stable dried meat products. United State Department of Agriculture. Food Safety and Inspection Service. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/FSRE_SS_7Principles.pdf
  70. Yost CK, Nattress FM (2002) Molecular typing techniques to characterize the development of a lactic acid bacteria community on vacuum-packaged beef. Int J Food Microbiol 72:97–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Youssef MK, Barbut S (2011a) Effects of two types of soy protein isolates, native and preheated whey protein isolates on emulsified meat batters prepared at different protein levels. Meat Sci 87:54–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Youssef MK, Barbut S (2011b) Fat reduction in comminuted meat products-effects of beef fat, regular and pre-emulsified canola oil. Meat Sci 87:356–360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhou GH, Xu XL, Liu Y (2010) Preservation technologies for fresh meat—a review. Meat Sci 86:119–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Anas
    • 1
  • Saghir Ahmad
    • 2
  • Abdul Malik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural SciencesAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural SciencesAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations