Advertisement

The Major Players in the Making of the Independence Constitution of Swaziland (Eswatini)

  • Hlengiwe Portia Dlamini
Chapter
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)

Abstract

In this chapter, the author looks at constitution-making in British Africa, discussing the main stakeholders that were expected to be the beneficiaries of the transfer of power after colonial rule. Eswatini’s geo-political location in the belly of apartheid South Africa and its settler colony status made the White settlers, who were the economic mainstay of the territory, important stakeholders who could not be circumvented. The Western-educated elite, otherwise referred to as Progressives, had subscribed to Nkrumah’s radical brand of nationalism and liberal democratic ideals. They stood out for immediate independence, multipartyism, Black majority rule and the nationalization of private property. The traditionalists, in the person of the Swazi monarch and his traditional Swazi National Council, manifested conservative credentials. They supported private property and White-settler economic interests. They clamoured for the political evolution of Swaziland under the monarchy, and enjoyed the support of the White Settlers and South Africa. Constitution-making turned out to be a clash of conflicting ideologies between the traditionalists and their White and South African allies versus the Progressives.

References

Newspapers

  1. ‘British Government Knows Our View-Nquku’, Izwi Lama Swazi, January 19, 1963.Google Scholar
  2. ‘Todd’s Thoughts on Constitutional Proposals’, The Times of Swaziland, March 23, 1962.Google Scholar

Files from the Swaziland National Archives (SNA)

  1. SNA, RCS 613/21, Report of the First Meeting of the European Advisory Council, October 18–20, 1921.Google Scholar
  2. SNA, RCS 359/22, Suggested Deputation of the European Advisory Council to High Commissioner at Government House Cape Town, July 21, 1922.Google Scholar
  3. SNA, Colonial Annual Reports, 1923.Google Scholar
  4. SNA, Swaziland Government Big Bend Strike Report 1963: A Report of the Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Causes and Circumstances of the Strike which took place in Big Bend area during March 1963, 10.Google Scholar
  5. SNA, Swaziland’s Report on the Constitution.Google Scholar

Books and Journals

  1. Allen, C. ‘Understanding African Politics’, Review of African Political Economy, 22, 65 (1995), 301–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayee, J. R. ‘A Note on the Machinery of Government During the King Sobhuza II Era in Swaziland’, Institute of African Studies Research Review, 5, 1 (1989), 54–68.Google Scholar
  3. Arrighi, G., and Saul, J. S. ‘Nationalism and Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa’, The Socialist Register, 6 (1969).Google Scholar
  4. Beck, R. B. The History of South Africa (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2014).Google Scholar
  5. Bischoff, P. H. ‘Why Swaziland Is Different: An Explanation of the Kingdom’s Political Position in Southern Africa’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 26, 3 (1988), 457–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Booth, M. Z. ‘Settler, Missionary, and the State: Contradictions in the Formulation of Educational Policy in Colonial Swaziland’, History of Education, 32, 1 (2003), 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourret, F. M. (ed.). Ghana, the Road to Independence, 1919–1957, Vol. 23 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1960).Google Scholar
  8. Boyce, A. N. ‘The Swaziland Concessions and Their Political Consequences 1876–1908’, PhD thesis, University of South Africa, 1946.Google Scholar
  9. Breytenbach, W. J. ‘Sobhuza’s Government: Old or New?’ Africa Insight, 9, 2 (1979), 72–75.Google Scholar
  10. Bujo, B. ‘Springboards for Modern African Constitutions and Development in African Cultural Traditions’, African Ethics: An Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics (2009), 391–411.Google Scholar
  11. Chambers, S. ‘Democracy, Popular Sovereignty, and Constitutional Legitimacy’, Constellations, 11, 2 (2004), 153–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cocks, P. ‘The King and I: Bronislaw Malinowski, King Sobhuza II of Swaziland and the Vision of Culture and Change in Africa’, History of the Human Sciences, 13, 4 (2000), 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coleman, J. S. Nationalism and Development in Africa: Selected Essays (London: University of California Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  14. Crowder, M. ‘Whose Dream Was It Anyway? Twenty-Five Years of African Independence’, African Affairs, 86, 342 (1987), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crush, J. ‘The Culture of Failure: Racism, Violence and White Farming in Colonial Swaziland’, Journal of Historical Geography, 22, 2 (1996), 177–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crush, J. ‘Landlords, Tenants and Colonial Social Engineers: The Farm Labour Question in Early Colonial Swaziland’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 11, 2 (1985), 236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crush, J. S. ‘Settler-Estate Production, Monopoly Control, and the Imperial Response: The Case of the Swaziland Corporation Ltd.’, African Economic History, 8 (1979), 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crush, J. S. ‘The Parameters of Dependence in Southern Africa: A Case Study of Swaziland’, Journal of Southern African Affairs, 4, 1 (1979), 55–66.Google Scholar
  19. Daniel, J., and Vilane, J. ‘Swaziland: Political Crisis, Regional Dilemma’, Review of African Political Economy, 13, 35 (1986), 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daniel, J. ‘The Political Economy of Colonial and Post-colonial Swaziland’, South African Labour Bulletin, 7, 6 (1982), 90–113.Google Scholar
  21. Deng, F. M. (ed.). Sovereignty as Responsibility: Conflict Management in Africa (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1996).Google Scholar
  22. De Winston, M. G. ‘Decolonisation and the Westminster Model’, In A. H. M. Kirk-Greene (ed.), Africa in the Colonial Period III: The Transfer of Power: The Colonial Administrators in the Age of Decolonisation (Oxford: Oxford University Inter-Faculty Committee for African Studies, 1979).Google Scholar
  23. Duverger, M. ‘A New Political Model: Semi-Presidential Government’, European Journal of Political Research, 8, 2 (1980), 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elias, T. O. Nigeria: The Development of Its Laws and Constitutions (London: Stevenson & Sons Ltd., 1967).Google Scholar
  25. Eisenstadt, S. N. ‘Primitive Political Systems: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis’, American Anthropologist, 61, 2 (1959), 200–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Falk, R., and Strauss, A. ‘On the Creation of a Global Peoples Assembly: Legitimacy and the Power of Popular Sovereignty’, Stanford Journal of International Law, 36 (2000), 191.Google Scholar
  27. Falola, T. Nationalism and African Intellectuals (Woodbridge: University Rochester Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  28. Fonchingong, C. C. ‘Exploring the Politics of Identity and Ethnicity in State Reconstruction in Cameroon’, Social Identities, 11, 4 (2005), 363–380.Google Scholar
  29. Fortes, M., and Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (eds.). African Political Systems (London: Oxford University Press, 1950).Google Scholar
  30. Fyfe, C. ‘Africanus Horton as a Constitution-Maker’, Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 26, 2 (1988), 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gbenga, F. ‘Ethnicity in Nigeria’, Philosophia Africana, 1, 2 (2008), 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gerring, J., Ziblatt, D., Van Gorp, J., and Arevalo, J. ‘An Institutional Theory of Direct and Indirect Rule’, World Politics, 63, 3 (2011), 377–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ghai, Y. ‘Constitutions and Governance in Africa: A Prolegomenon’, In Law and Crisis in the Third World (London, Melbourne, Munich, and New Jersey: Hans Zell Publishers, 1993).Google Scholar
  34. Hailey, W. M. H. B. The Republic of South Africa and the High Commission Territories (London: Oxford University Press, 1963).Google Scholar
  35. Houghton, D. H. The Tomlinson Report: A Summary of the Findings and Recommendations in the Tomlinson Commission Report (South African Institute of Race Relations, 1956).Google Scholar
  36. Hyam, R. The Failure of South African Expansion, 1908–1948 (Africana Publication, 1972).Google Scholar
  37. Ibhawoh, B. ‘Between Culture and Constitution: Evaluating the Cultural Legitimacy of Human Rights in the African State’, Human Rights Quarterly, 22, 3 (2000), 838–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Julian G. O. ‘Modeling the State: Postcolonial Constitutions in Asia and Africa’, Southeast Asian Studies, 39, 4 (2002), 558–583. Google Scholar
  39. Kuper, H. An African Aristocracy: Rank Among Swazi (London: Oxford University Press, 1980).Google Scholar
  40. Kuper, H. ‘The Colonial Situation in Southern Africa’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 2, 2 (1964), 149–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kuper, H. King Sobhuza II, Ngwenyama and King of Swaziland: The Story of an Hereditary Ruler and His Country (London: Africana Publication, 1978).Google Scholar
  42. Kuper, H. The Swazi: A South African Kingdom (New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1986).Google Scholar
  43. Levin, R. ‘Swaziland’s Tinkhundla and the Myth of Swazi Tradition’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 10, 2 (1991), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Le Vine, V. T. ‘The Fall and Rise of Constitutionalism in West Africa’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 35, 2 (1997), 181–206.Google Scholar
  45. Liijphart, A. (ed.). Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government (London: Oxford University Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  46. Lumumba-Kasongo, T. ‘The Origin of African Constitutions, Elusive Constitutionalism, and the Crisis of Liberal Democracy’, 63–96, In Democratic Renewal in Africa (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).Google Scholar
  47. Macmillan, H. ‘Swaziland: Decolonisation and the Triumph of “Tradition”’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 23, 4 (1985), 643–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mamdani, M. ‘The Social Basis of Constitutionalism in Africa’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 28, 3 (1990), 359–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matsebula, J. S. M. A History of Swaziland (Johannesburg: Longman Southern Africa Ltd., 1972).Google Scholar
  50. Matthews, K. ‘Squatters on Private Tenure Farms in Swaziland: A Preliminary Investigation’, In M. Neocosmos (ed.), Social Relations in Rural Swaziland: Critical Analyses (Social Science Research Unit, University of Swaziland, 1987).Google Scholar
  51. Meredith, M. The Fate of Africa: A History of the Continent Since Independence (Hachette UK, 2011).Google Scholar
  52. Middleton, J., and Tait, D. Tribes Without Rulers: Studies in African Segmentary Systems (London: Rutledge, 2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mlambo, A. S. A History of Zimbabwe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014).Google Scholar
  54. Motsamai, D. Swaziland’s Non-Party Political System and the 2013 Tinkhundla Elections Breaking the SADC Impasse? Institute for Security Studies Situation Report (Pretoria, August 15, 2012).Google Scholar
  55. Mzizi, J. B. ‘The Dominance of the Swazi Monarchy and the Moral Dynamics of Democratisation of the Swazi State’, Journal of African Elections, 3, 1 (2004), 94–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mzizi, J. B. Political Movements and the Challenges for Democracy in Swaziland. Research Report No. 18 (Johannesburg, EISA, 2005).Google Scholar
  57. Nengwekhulu, R. ‘Some Findings on the Origins of Political Parties in Botswana’, Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies, 1, 2 (1979), 71–72.Google Scholar
  58. Nkrumah, K. Class Struggle in Africa (New York: International Publishers, 1970).Google Scholar
  59. Nkrumah, K. Handbook of Revolutionary Warfare: A Guide to the Armed Phase of the African Revolution, Vol. 17 (New York: International Publishers, 1969).Google Scholar
  60. Nkrumah, K. Neo-colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1965).Google Scholar
  61. Nkrumah, K. Towards Colonial Freedom (London: Heinemann, 1962).Google Scholar
  62. Nkrumah, K., Arrigoni, R., and Napolitano, G. Africa Must Unite (London: Heinemann, 1963).Google Scholar
  63. Nwabueze, B. O. A Constitutional History of Nigeria (London: C. Hurst & Company, 1981).Google Scholar
  64. Nwabueze, B. O. Constitutionalism in the Emergent States (London: C. Hurst & Company, 1973).Google Scholar
  65. Okonkwo, R. Heroes of West African Nationalism (Enugu: Delta, 1985).Google Scholar
  66. Potholm, C. P. Swaziland: The Dynamics of Political Modernization, Vol. 8 (London: University of California Press, 1972).Google Scholar
  67. Robinson, K. ‘Autochthony and the Transfer of Power’, In K. Robinson and F. Madden (eds.), Essays in Imperial Government: Presented to Margery Perham (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1963).Google Scholar
  68. Salamone, F. A. ‘Ethnicity and Nigeria Since the End of the Civil War’, Dialectical Anthropology, 22, 3–4 (1997), 303–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Saunders, C. ‘Pixley Seme: Towards a Biography’, South African Historical Journal, 25, 1 (1991), 196–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schmidt, E. ‘Anticolonial Nationalism in French West Africa: What Made Guinea Unique?’ African Studies Review, 52, 2 (2009), 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shepperson, G. ‘Notes on Negro American Influences on the Emergence of African Nationalism’, The Journal of African History, 1, 2 (1960), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simelane, H. S. ‘The State, Landlords, and the Squatter Problem in Post-colonial Swaziland’, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 36, 2 (2002), 329–354.Google Scholar
  73. Skalník, P. ‘Authority Versus Power: Democracy in Africa, Must Include Original African Institutions’, The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 28, 37–38 (1996), 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stevens, R. P. Lesotho, Botswana and Swaziland: The Former High Commission Territories in Southern Africa (London: Pall Mall, 1967).Google Scholar
  75. Stevens, R. P. ‘Swaziland Political Development’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 1, 3 (1963), 327–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Strang, D. ‘From Dependency to Sovereignty: An Event History Analysis of Decolonization 1870–1987’, American Sociological Review (1990), 846–860.Google Scholar
  77. Zwane, T. M. J. ‘The Struggle for Power in Swaziland’, Africa Today (1964), 4–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hlengiwe Portia Dlamini
    • 1
  1. 1.University of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations