Lungs, Mediastinum, and Pleura

  • Xiaoqi LinEmail author
  • Julianne M. Ubago
  • Rehan Ali
  • Ali Al Asadi
  • Ahsun Riaz


Transthoracic and transbronchial fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core biopsies are the main methods used to diagnose mass lesions in the lung parenchyma, pleura, and mediastinum, and these techniques can also be used to confirm benign neoplasms, infections, and inflammatory lesions. Transthoracic FNA/biopsy is the best method for diagnosing small peripheral lesions, while endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA (EUS FNA) is the preferred method for biopsy of central lesions. FNA biopsy is particularly useful to distinguish between small cell carcinoma and non–small cell carcinoma and is critical to help stage non–small cell lung carcinoma patients. In most cases, the diagnostic benefit of the FNA procedure far outweighs the risk of complications. Therefore, FNA biopsy can significantly impact patient management while avoiding more invasive procedures and unnecessary surgeries.


Liver Cytomorphology Histology Radiology Immunohistochemistry 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoqi Lin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julianne M. Ubago
    • 2
  • Rehan Ali
    • 3
  • Ali Al Asadi
    • 3
  • Ahsun Riaz
    • 4
  1. 1.Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial HospitalChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyEdward HospitalNapervilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologySection of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Department of PathologyNorthwestern MedicineChicagoUSA

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