Synthetic Seeds: Prospects and Advances in Cryopreservation

  • Débora de Oliveira Prudente
  • Lucas Batista de Souza
  • Renato Paiva


Long-term storage of synthetic seeds can be accomplished using cryopreservation techniques. Cryopreservation allows the viability of encapsulated plant material to be conserved and maintained over a long period without modifications or genetic changes because the material is exposed to ultralow temperatures in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C), which decreases or even halts cellular metabolism. Cryopreservation has been found to be practical and efficient for the conservation of many species due to the small volume of material needed for storage, the simplification of transportation procedures and the minimal maintenance required compared to conventional storage methods. The main cryopreservation techniques applied to synthetic seeds are encapsulation-dehydration and encapsulation-vitrification. These techniques have been shown to be highly applicable for small explants that are sensitive to the conventional cryopreservation process, such as meristems and somatic embryos. However, the success of cryopreservation techniques for synthetic seeds depends on the type of encapsulated explant, on the capsule constitution and consistency and on research on the different cryopreservation stages in order to optimize the survival and regeneration of the plant material. Therefore, the present chapter is based on studies of the different stages of cryopreservation related to encapsulation techniques developed over time and on the major advances and innovations in cryopreservation.


Long-term storage Plant germplasm Cryopreservation Encapsulation-dehydration Encapsulation-vitrification 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Débora de Oliveira Prudente
    • 1
  • Lucas Batista de Souza
    • 1
  • Renato Paiva
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidade Federal de LavrasLavrasBrazil

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