Biomaterials for Cranio-Maxillofacial Bone Engineering

  • Giuseppe Maria de Peppo
  • Omar Omar
  • Peter ThomsenEmail author


The regeneration of bone, particularly in large defects, is one of the major challenges within the cranio-maxillofacial field. This chapter provides a summary of key components required for the restitution of defects with bone. Biomaterials play a fundamental role in bone engineering and regeneration because they provide conductive and inductive cues supporting cell proliferation and tissue formation. Metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and natural materials constitute the major types of scaffolds. Herein, the biological response to different scaffold materials is reviewed. Furthermore, the clinical evidence from human trials is summarized. Although promising results have been generated in vitro and in preclinical animal models, so far only few materials have entered the clinical phase. The future perspective of this field of research deals with the successful merger of critical technical and biological aspects. The translational process, reaching the clinical stage, requires true interdisciplinary efforts and is usually much longer than anticipated.


Bone defects Bone graft Bone regeneration Cell–material interactions Ceramic Composite Cranio-maxillofacial Metal Polymer Scaffold 



The authors thank all co-workers for their valuable collaboration in experimental and clinical research projects. The authors also thank and acknowledge the research grant providers: The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, The Ralph and Ricky Lauren Family Foundation, the Swedish Research Council (K2015-52X-09495-28-4), the Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government and the county councils, the ALF agreement (ALFGBG-725641), the Osteology Foundation (project grants 15-103 and 17-235), the IngaBritt and Arne Lundberg Foundation, the Hjalmar Svensson Foundation, the Adlerbertska Foundation, the Vilhelm and Martina Lundgren Vetenskapsfond, and the Area of Advance Materials of Chalmers and GU Biomaterials within the Strategic Research Area initiative launched by the Swedish government.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Maria de Peppo
    • 1
  • Omar Omar
    • 2
  • Peter Thomsen
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research InstituteNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiomaterialsInstitute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

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