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Future Perspectives of Bone Tissue Engineering with Special Emphasis on Extracellular Vesicles

  • Sippy KaurEmail author
  • Bettina Mannerström
  • Karin Ekström
  • Riitta Seppänen-Kaijansinkko
Chapter

Abstract

Therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue engineering are known to facilitate via paracrine factors such as extracellular vesicles (EVs). These lipid membranous, small heterogeneous vesicles contain wide variety of functional mRNA, miRNA, proteins, and lipids. EVs are involved in several biological processes, such as mediating intercellular communication, cell differentiation, regulation of immune response, and organ remodeling. From tissue engineering point of view, all these features are considered promising in restoring the functions of the injured tissues. Additionally, due to their stability, bioavailability, and low immunogenicity, EVs can be used to develop cell-free therapy for regenerative medicine. Therefore, a paradigm shift in the field of bone tissue engineering is beginning to emerge with stem-derived EV-based therapy. Scientific evidence regarding the application of stem cell-derived EVs in regenerative medicine is still in its infancy, and the challenges and progress made in the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of EVs are summarized in this chapter. Despite the promise they hold for future diagnostic and therapy, their heterogeneity and molecular complexity demand extensive research and high-resolution technology advancement to fully explore the potential of the EVs.

Keywords

Extracellular vesicles Mesenchymal stem cells Bone tissue engineering Scaffolds Extracellular vesicles applications 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sippy Kaur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bettina Mannerström
    • 1
  • Karin Ekström
    • 2
  • Riitta Seppänen-Kaijansinkko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial DiseasesUniversity of Helsinki and Helsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska AcademyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

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