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Liver Diseases pp 727-739 | Cite as

Liver Transplantation for Acute and Chronic Liver Failure

  • Tehilla Apfel
  • Nikolaos T. PyrsopoulosEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Liver transplantation is a life-saving surgical procedure for patients with acute and chronic liver diseases. In the United States, acute liver failure, chronic liver disease (alcoholic liver disease, PSC, PBC, viral hepatitis), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-based metabolic defects are the primary reasons for liver transplantation (O’Leary et al., Gastroenterology 134(6):1764–1776, 2008). In the United States in 2017, 8082 liver transplants were done, accounting for 23% of all solid organ transplantations (United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Transplants by organ type—2017. Data: Transplant trends). The number of liver transplantations has increased by 24% since 2007, however due to a limited supply and increasing survival of patients on the transplantation waiting list, the number of organs available do not meet the needs of the population (https://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/data/view-data-reports/national-data/). Complex rules and regulations have been developed to best determine which candidates would benefit the most from receiving liver transplantation. This is a complicated matter that involves evaluation of the medical necessity, but also considers psychological and sociological factors, as patients are evaluated by liver transplant specialists.

This chapter will discuss general principles regarding liver transplantation, with a focus on liver transplantation for acute liver failure and chronic liver failure from cirrhosis.

Keywords

Chronic liver disease NAFLD Chronic liver failure Liver transplantation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyRutgers—New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

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