Liver Diseases pp 637-649 | Cite as

Endoscopy and Endoscopic Ultrasound for the Evaluation and Treatment of Gastric and Ectopic Varices

  • Mihai RimbașEmail author
  • Alberto Larghi


Gastrointestinal varices are present in about half of patients with portal hypertension (PH). While most patients with PH have liver cirrhosis, it can also develop in the absence of cirrhosis, i.e. ‘non-cirrhotic PH’. Acute variceal bleeding is the most serious complication of PH, occurring in one third of patients with gastrointestinal varices, with an increased mortality of up to 20% at 6 weeks in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The present chapter reviews the endoscopic therapeutic options for patients with gastric and ectopic gastrointestinal varices.


Portal hypertension Gastric varices Ectopic varices Gastrointestinal endoscopy Endoscopic ultrasound Cyanoacrylate Stainless steel coil embolization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gastroenterology DepartmentColentina Clinical HospitalBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Internal Medicine DepartmentCarol Davila University of MedicineBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. GemelliIRCCSRomeItaly

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