Advertisement

Liver Diseases pp 569-586 | Cite as

Medical Nutrition Therapy in Liver Disease

  • Anca Pantea Stoian
  • Andra Iulia Suceveanu
  • Adrian Paul Suceveanu
  • Laura Mazilu
  • Irinel Raluca Parepa
Chapter

Abstract

It is acknowledged that acute or chronic hepatic pathology produces numerous changes to the entire metabolism, but also to the nutritional status. One essential feature is the presence of protein-caloric malnutrition in both acute and chronic hepatic diseases; and its presence is considered a significant risk factor for morbimortality. Importantly, the Nutritional Care Process, part of the medical nutritional intervention develops the tools for the identification, diagnosis, correction and monitoring of malnutrition, but also of its complications. Moreover, the nutritional intervention tackles each hepatic pathology in its either acute or chronic form, determines and implements the caloric requirements and even the composition of macro- and micronutrients necessary for the achievement of an optimal nutritional status, corrects nutritional deficiencies and improves the life quality of the patient with liver impairment.

Keywords

Nutrition care process Liver disease Malnutrition Liver therapy Medical nutrition 

References

  1. 1.
    Plauth M, Merli M, Kondrup J, Weimann A, Ferenci P, Muller MJ. Espen guidelines for nutrition in liver disease and transplantation—Consensus Statement. Clin Nutr. 1997;16:43–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lacey K, Pritchett E. Nutrition care process and model: ADA adopts road map to quality care and outcomes management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(8):1061–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Institute of Health Clinical Guidelines on the identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. The evidence report. 1998. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2003/. Accessed 18 July 2018.
  4. 4.
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults - the evidence report. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 1998. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2003. Accessed 19 July 2018.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Width M, Reinhard T. The clinical dietitian’s essential pocket guide. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 3–30. ISBN 978-0-7817-8829-8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peterson M, Diana M, George B, Steven B. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103:1197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peterson CM, Thomas DM, Blackburn GL, Heymsfield SB. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(5):1197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huffman GB. Evaluation and treating unintentional weight loss in elderly. J Fam Pract. 1998;47(1):19–25.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016;22(Suppl 3):1–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frisancho AR. New norms of upper limb fat and muscle areas for assessment of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34(11):2540–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Douglas CC, Lawrence JC, Bush NC, Oster RA, Gower BA, Darnell BE. Ability of the Harris-Benedict formula to predict energy requirements differ with weight history and ethnicity. Nutr Res. 2007;27(4):194–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2007.01.016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mendenhall CL, Anderson CL, Weisner S, Robert E, et al. Protein-calorie malnutrition associated with alcoholic hepatitis. Am J Med. 1984;76(2):211–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mackle TJ, Touger-Decker R, O’Sullivan Maillet J, Holland BK. Registered dietitians’ use of physical assessment parameters in professional practice. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(12):1632–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stratton RJ, Hackston A, Longmore D, Dixon R, Price S, Stroud M, King CL, Elia M, et al. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(5):799–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaiser MJ, Bauer JM, Ramsch C, Uter W, Guigoz Y, Cederholm T, Thomas DR, Anthony P, Charlton KE, Maggio M, Tsai AC, Grathwohl D, Vellas B, Sieber CC, MNA-International Group. Validation of the mini nutritional assessment short-form (MNA-SF): a practical tool for identification of nutritional status. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009;13(9):782–8. With Nestle’s Nutrition Institute permission.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vellas B, Villars H, Abellan G, et al. Overview of the MNA® - its history and challenges. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10:456–65. With Nestle’s Nutrition Institute permission.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rubenstein LZ, Harker JO, Salva A, Guigoz Y, Vellas B. Screening for undernutrition in geriatric practice: developing the short-form mini nutritional assessment (MNA-SF). J Geront. 2001;56A:M366–77. With Nestle’s Nutrition Institute permission.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guigoz Y. The mini-nutritional assessment (MNA®) review of the literature - what does it tell us? J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10:466–87. With Nestle’s Nutrition Institute permission.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bouillanne O, Morneau G, Dupont C, Coulombel I, Vincent JP, Nicolis I, Benazeth S, Cynobe L, Aussel C. Geriatric nutritional risk index: a new index for evaluating at-risk elderly medical patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(4):777–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abd-El-Gawad WM, Abou-Hashem RM, El Maraghy MO, Amin GE. The validity of Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index: simple tool for prediction of nutritional-related complication of hospitalised elderly patients. Comparison with mini nutritional assessment. Clin Nutr. 2014;33(6):1108–16. Epub 2013 Dec 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tarnus E, Bourdon E. Anthropometric evaluations of body composition of undergraduate students at the University of La Re’union. Adv Physiol Educ. 2006;30:248–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bauer JM, Vogl T, Wicklein S, et al. Comparison of the Mini Nutritional Assessment, Subjective Global Assessment, and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) for nutritional screening and assessment in geriatric hospital patients. Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2005;38:322.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00391-005-0331-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/. Accessed 21 July 2018.
  24. 24.
    Ballmer PE, Walshe D, McNurlan MA, Watson H, Brunt PW, Garlic PJ, et al. Hepatology. 1993;18:292–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cabre E, Nunez MC, Gonzalez-Huix F, et al. Clinical and nutritional factors predictive of plasma lipid unsaturation deficiency in advance liver cirrhosis: a logistic regression analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88:1738–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mincu I. Dietoterapia la inceputul mileniului II. Bucuresti: Fundatiei Romania de Maine; 2004. p. 290–1.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Campillo B, Richardet J-P, Scherman E, Bories PN. Evaluation of nutritional practice in hospitalised cirrhotic patients: results of a prospective study. Nutrition. 2003;19:515–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Silva M, Gomes S, Peixoto A, et al. Nutrition in chronic liver disease. GE Port J Gastroenterol. 2015;22(6):268–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpge.2015.06.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mahan LK, Escott Stump S, Raymond JL. Krause’s food and nutrition care process. 13th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2012. p. 646–65.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    McCullough AJ, O’Connor JF. Alcoholic liver disease: proposed recommendations for the American College of Gastroenterology. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93(11):2022–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mendenhall CL, Anderson S, Weesner RE, Goldberg SJ, Crolic KA. Protein-calorie malnutrition associated with alcoholic hepatitis. Am J Med. 1984;76:211–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Leevy CM, Moroianu SA. Nutritional aspects of alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2005;9(1):67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Griffith CM, Schenker S. The role of nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Res Health. 2006;29(4):296–306.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chao A, Waitzberg D, de Jesus RP, Bueno AA, Kha V, Allen K, Kappus M, Medici V. Malnutrition and nutritional support in alcoholic liver disease: a review. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2016;18(12):65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kearns PJ, Young H, Garcia G, et al. Accelerated improvement of alcoholic liver disease with enteral nutrition. Gastroenterology. 1992;102:200–2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eslamparast T, Tandon P, Raman M. Dietary composition independent of weight loss in the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrients. 2017;9:800.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080800.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Campillo B, Richardet JP, Bories PN. Enteral nutrition in severely malnourished and anorectic cirrhotic patients in clinical practice. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2005;29(6–7):645–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hasse JM, Blue LS, Liepa GU, et al. Early enteral nutrition support in patients undergoing liver transplantation. J Parenter Enter Nutr. 1995;19:437–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Perumpail BJ, Li AA, Cholankeril G, Kumari R, Ahmed A. Optimizing the nutritional support of adult patients in the setting of cirrhosis. Nutrients. 2017;9:1114.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101114.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lundbom N, Laurila O, Laurila S. Central pontine myelinolysis after correction of chronic hyponatraemia. Lancet. 1993;342(8865):247–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Plevak DJ, DiCecco SR, Wiesner RH, Porayko MK, Wahlstrom HE, Janzow DJ, Hammel KD, O’Keefe SJ. Nutritional support for liver transplantation: identifying caloric and protein requirements. Mayo Clin Proc. 1994;69(3):225–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Giusto M, Lattanzi B, Di Gregorio V, Giannelli V, Lucidi C, Merli M. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(31):10682–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anca Pantea Stoian
    • 1
  • Andra Iulia Suceveanu
    • 2
  • Adrian Paul Suceveanu
    • 2
  • Laura Mazilu
    • 3
  • Irinel Raluca Parepa
    • 4
  1. 1.Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic diseases Department, Faculty of MedicineUMF “Carol Davila”BucharestRomania
  2. 2.Internal Medicine Discipline—Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of MedicineOvidius UniversityConstanţaRomania
  3. 3.Oncology Discipline, Faculty of MedicineOvidius UniversityConstanţaRomania
  4. 4.Internal Medicine—Cardiology Department, Faculty of MedicineOvidius UniversityConstanţaRomania

Personalised recommendations