Liver Diseases pp 553-558 | Cite as

Portal Venography

  • Haokang Wei
  • Vishnu Chandra
  • Faisal Shah
  • Sohail G. ContractorEmail author


Portal venography provides valuable information regarding the anatomy and physiology of the portal and it’s collateral circulation. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the portal venous system is of great importance in evaluating the liver and splanchnic circulation before and after hepatobiliary procedures and for evaluation of mesenteric ischemia, varices, and in chronic liver disease. There are multiple noninvasive and invasive methods to assess portal venous system. Noninvasive modalities allow frequent, relatively inexpensive, faster, and safer imaging of the portal venous system. Invasive modalities allow intra-procedural and hemodynamic parameter assessment of the portal venous system but carry some mortality and morbidity depending upon the approach.


Ultrasonography Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Splenoportography Transhepatic portography Wedged hepatic venography Arterial portography Portal hypertension Portal venography TIPS 


  1. 1.
    Tarantino L, Francica G, Sordelli I, Nocera V. Contrast-enhanced US: a simple, quick and sensitive tool in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2008;48:S12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raza SA, Jang HJ, Kim TK. Differentiating malignant from benign thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma: contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Abdom Imaging. 2014;39(1):153–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rossi S, Rosa L, Ravetta V, Cascina A, Quaretti P, Azzaretti A, Scagnelli P, Tinelli C, Dionigi P, Calliada F. Contrast-enhanced versus conventional and color Doppler sonography for the detection of thrombosis of the portal and hepatic venous systems. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:763–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sorrentino P, D’Angelo S, Tarantino L, Ferbo U, Bracigliano A, Vecchione R. Contrast-enhanced sonography versus biopsy for the differential diagnosis of thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2245–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Piscaglia F, Gianstefani A, Ravaioli M, Golfieri R, Cappelli A, Giampalma E, Sagrini E, Imbriaco G, Pinna AD, Bolondi L. Criteria for diagnosing benign portal vein thrombosis in the assessment of patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2010;16:658–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oguz B, Akata D, Balkanci F, Akhan O. Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt: diagnosis by colour/power Doppler imaging and three-dimensional ultrasound. Br J Radiol. 2003;76:487–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moran DE, Bennett AE, Sheiman RG. Diagnostic radiology of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. In: Seminars in ultrasound, CT and MRI, vol. 34(4). Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2013. p. 352–64.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dani G, Sun MR, Bennett AE. Imaging of liver transplant and its complications. In: Seminars in ultrasound, CT and MRI, vol. 2013, 34(4). Philadelphia: WB Saunders. p. 365–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canellas R, Mehrkhani F, Patino M, Kambadakone A, Sahani D. Characterization of portal vein thrombosis (neoplastic versus bland) on CT images using software-based texture analysis and thrombus density (Hounsfield units). Am J Roentgenol. 2016;207(5):W81–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ascenti G, Sofia C, Mazziotti S, Silipigni S, D’Angelo T, Pergolizzi S, Scribano E. Dual-energy CT with iodine quantification in distinguishing between bland and neoplastic portal vein thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Radiol. 2016;71(9):938–e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Iranmanesh P, Vazquez O, Terraz S, Majno P, Spahr L, Poncet A, Morel P, Mentha G, Toso C. Accurate computed tomography-based portal pressure assessment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2014;60(5):969–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee JY, Kim TY, Jeong WK, Kim Y, Kim J, Kim KW, Kim YH, Sohn JH. Clinically severe portal hypertension: role of multi-detector row CT features in diagnosis. Dig Dis Sci. 2014;59(9):2333–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kihira S, Kagen AC, Vasudevan P, Jajamovich GH, Schiano TD, Andrle AF, Babb JS, Fischman A, Taouli B. Non-invasive prediction of portal pressures using CT and MRI in chronic liver disease. Abdom Radiol. 2016;41(1):42–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Darcy M. Evaluation and management of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199(4):730–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roldán-Alzate A, Frydrychowicz A, Niespodzany E, Landgraf BR, Johnson KM, Wieben O, Reeder SB. In vivo validation of 4D flow MRI for assessing the hemodynamics of portal hypertension. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;37(5):1100–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stankovic Z, Jung B, Collins J, Russe MF, Carr J, Euringer W, Stehlin L, Csatari Z, Strohm PC, Langer M, Markl M. Reproducibility study of four-dimensional flow MRI of arterial and portal venous liver hemodynamics: influence of spatio-temporal resolution. Magn Reson Med. 2014;72(2):477–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stankovic Z, Blanke P, Markl M. Usefulness of 4D MRI flow imaging to control TIPS function. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(2):327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stankovic Z, Rössle M, Euringer W, Schultheiss M, Salem R, Barker A, Carr J, Langer M, Markl M, Collins JD. Effect of TIPS placement on portal and splanchnic arterial blood flow in 4-dimensional flow MRI. Eur Radiol. 2015;25(9):2634–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhu K, Meng X, Zhou B, Qian J, Huang W, Deng M, Shan H. Percutaneous transsplenic portal vein catheterization: technical procedures, safety, and clinical applications. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013;24(4):518–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ali F, Mangi MA, Rehman H, Kaluski E. Use of carbon dioxide as an intravascular contrast agent: a review of current literature. World J Cardiol. 2017;9(9):715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haokang Wei
    • 1
  • Vishnu Chandra
    • 1
  • Faisal Shah
    • 1
  • Sohail G. Contractor
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyRutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations