Patient-Specific 3D Printing in Liver Disease
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been increasingly used in medical applications with promising results reported in the literature. 3D printed physical models are shown to be advantageous than traditional visualisation tools in demonstrating complex anatomical structures and offering 3D relationship between normal anatomy and pathology. Evidence of using 3D printed liver models in clinical practice indicates the accuracy of 3D printed models in replicating anatomy and pathology, potential value of 3D printed models in pre-surgical planning, simulation and medical education. This chapter provides an overview of the clinical application of 3D printed models in liver disease. Limitations and future directions of 3D printing in liver disease are also highlighted.
KeywordsApplication Education Hepatocellular carcinoma Liver Model Simulation Surgical planning Three-dimensional printing
A process to produce a solid 3D object from a 3D digital model using different materials enabling creation of customizable or patient-specific geometries or shapes.
Most common type of primary malignant liver cancer.
Treatment option for a diseased liver by replacing it with a healthy liver from another person (donor).
An abnormal mass of tissue growth resulting in swelling or enlargement of a part of the organ or body.
- 2.Sumida T, Otawa N, Kamata YU, Kamakura S, Misushita T, Kitagaki H, Mori S, Sasaki K, Fujibayashi S, Takemoto M, Yamaguchi A, Sohmura T, Nakamura T, Mori Y. Custom-made titanium devices as membranes for bone augmentation in implant treatment: clinical application and the comparison with conventional titanium mesh. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43:2183–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Baimakhanov Z, Soyama A, Takatsuki M, Hidaka M, Hirayama T, Kinoshita A, Natsuda K, Kuroki T, Eguchi S. Preoperative simulation with a 3-dimensional printed solid model for one-stop reconstruction of multiple hepatic veins during living donor liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2015;21:266–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Igami T, Nakamura Y, Hirose T, Ebata T, Yokoyama Y, Sugawara G, Mizuno T, Mori K, Nagino M. Application of a three-dimensional print of a liver in hepatectomy for small tumors invisible by intraoperative ultrasonography: preliminary experience. World J Surg. 2014;38:3163–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Souzaki R, Kinoshita Y, Ieiri S, Hayashida M, Koga Y, Shirabe K, Hara T, Maehara Y, Hashizume M, Taguchi T. Three-dimensional liver model based on preoperative CT images as a tool to assist in surgical planning for hepatoblastoma in a child. Pediatr Surg Int. 2015;31:593–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar