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Hepatocellular Death: Apoptosis, Autophagy, Necrosis and Necroptosis

  • Florentina Radu-Ionita
  • Ecaterina Bontas
  • Ion C. Tintoiu
Chapter

Abstract

Without a doubt, hepatocellular death exists in all types of human liver disease such as viral, metabolic, autoimmune and toxic conditions. Presently, the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018 are grading cell death into three morphotypes apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis. Apoptosis and necrosis represent two major modes of hepatocyte death, and apoptosis assures tissue homeostasis by the physiologic removal of damaged hepatocytes. Signaling death pathways of liver might carry significant findings for a correct treatment of hepatic disorders. Lastly, upcoming studies should reveal knowledge regarding the liver regulation of hepatic signaling death pathways. A comprising overview of hepatocyte death is developed in this chapter.

Keywords

Cell death Hepatocellular death Apoptosis Autophagy Necrosis Necroptosis 

Abbreviations

AIF

Apoptosis-inducing factor

ALD

Alcoholic liver disease

AP-1

Activator protein-1

AP-1

The activation protein-1

APAF-1

Apoptosis protease-activating factor-1

Atg

Autophagy-related proteins

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

ATP

Deoxyadenosine triphosphate

Bcl-2

(B-cell lymphoma-2)

c-FLIP

Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein

DAMPs

Damage-associated molecular patterns

DISC

The death-inducing signaling complex

FADD

Fas-associated protein with a death domain

FasL

Fas Ligand

HMGB1

Protein (high-mobility group box-1) or HMG-1 (high—mobility group)1

Hsc70

The chaperone heat shock cognate 70

IAP

Inhibitors of apoptotic proteins

IKK complex

I-kappa B kinase complex

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LAMP2A

Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A

LUBAC

Linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinases

MLKL

Mixed-lineage kinase domain-like

MOMP

Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization

MOMP

Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization

mTOR kinase

The mammalian target of rapamycin kinase

NAFLD

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

NASH

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

NF-KB

Transcription factor nuclear factor

PCD

Programmed cell death

PI3K

Class III phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase

PRRs

The pathogen recognition receptors

PS

Phosphatidylserine

RIPK

Receptor interacting protein kinase or receptor interacting serine-threonine kinase

RIPs

Receptor interacting proteins

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

Smac

Second activator of mitochondrial apoptosis

TFEB

Transcription factor EB

TGF-β1

Transforming growth factor

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TNFR1

TNF receptor type 1

TNFR2

TNF receptor type

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor

TRADD

TNF receptor associated death domain protein

TRAF2

TNF receptor-associated factor 2

TRAIL

TNF related apoptosis-inducing ligand

TRAIL

TNF-released apoptosis-inducing ligand

TRAIL-R

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor

UTP

Uridine triphosphate

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florentina Radu-Ionita
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ecaterina Bontas
    • 3
  • Ion C. Tintoiu
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyCentral Military Emergency University Hospital “Dr. Carol Davila”BucharestRomania
  2. 2.Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine“Titu Maiorescu” UniversityBucharestRomania
  3. 3.“Prof. C.C. Iliescu” Emergency Institute for Cardiovascular DiseasesBucharestRomania
  4. 4.Cardiology Department“Carol Davila” Central Military Emergency University HospitalBucharestRomania

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