Liver Diseases pp 397-406 | Cite as

History and Physical Examination

  • Ana-Maria Vintilă
  • Mihaela Horumbă
  • Vlad Damian Vintilă


Chronic liver disease is highly prevalent worldwide and an important cause of death in patients aged 25–65. Many conditions have been shown to eventually lead to liver failure thus rendering focused history taking and clinical examination particularly important. As patients with liver disease generally present with non-specific symptoms, a skilled physician must actively seek out risk factors and be able to recognize early signs of liver disease in order to reach a correct diagnosis and begin appropriate treatment.


Chronic liver disease Cutaneous manifestations Cirrhosis Hepatitis Clinical examination Signs and symptoms Portal hypertension 



Body mass index


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


Vascular endothelial growth factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana-Maria Vintilă
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mihaela Horumbă
    • 2
  • Vlad Damian Vintilă
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Carol Davila University of Medicine and PharmacyBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine and CardiologyColțea Clinical HospitalBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyEmergency University HospitalBucharestRomania

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