Liver Diseases pp 181-195 | Cite as

Viral Hepatitis C

  • Luigi Elio AdinolfiEmail author
  • Emanuele Durante Mangoni
  • Aldo Marrone
  • Rosa Zampino
  • Luca Rinaldi


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne virus endemic throughout the world and a major cause of liver disease. HCV is transmitted parenterally and less than 25% of cases of acute infection become clinically evident. Most patients who acquire HCV cannot eliminate it spontaneously and develop a chronic infection with a high propensity to evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, HCV plays a role in a wide range of extrahepatic manifestations, including lipid and glucose metabolic imbalances. Therefore, the clinical and prognostic impact of HCV infection depends not only on liver-related complications and death, but also on extrahepatic manifestations. Although viral replication occurs primarily in the liver, HCV is able to infect and replicate into most human cells and tissues causing local and systemic inflammation. Consequently, HCV infection is considered a systemic disease. In recent years, direct-acting antiviral agents have been approved and these drugs are able to achieve HCV clearance in up to 98% of cases with a positive clinical impact on hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. This favorable therapeutic scenario has allowed the World Health Organization to hope for the global eradication of viral hepatitis C by 2030.


HCV Acute hepatitis Chronic hepatitis Cirrhosis HCC Extrahepatic manifestations DAA treatments 




Acute hepatitis C


Alanine aminotransferase


Aspartate aminotransferase


Chronic hepatitis C


Direct-acting antivirals


Dry blood spot




Enzyme immunoassays


Endoplasmic reticulum


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


Insulin resistance




Mixed cryoglobulinemia


Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein


Non-structural proteins


Non-selective beta blockers


Point of care


Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis


Sustained virological response


Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt


Very low-density lipoprotein


World Health Organization


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi Elio Adinolfi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emanuele Durante Mangoni
    • 2
  • Aldo Marrone
    • 1
  • Rosa Zampino
    • 1
  • Luca Rinaldi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical SciencesUniversity of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Precision MedicineUniversity of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly

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