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Dysregulation of Heat Shock Proteins in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Restorative Roles of Small Molecules and Natural Compounds

  • Panchanan Maiti
  • Jayeeta Manna
Chapter
Part of the Heat Shock Proteins book series (HESP, volume 20)

Abstract

Gradual depositions of misfolded amyloid proteins play major roles in onset, progression and severity of many neurodegenerative diseases. Several protein clearance machineries exist in the cell which are involved in degradation of these proteins. Therefore, these systems are considered the key players of cellular protein homeostasis. A molecular chaperone, such as heat shock protein (HSP) is one of them, which play a crucial role in degradation of these misfolded protein aggregates. Indeed, larger protein aggregates are degraded by phagocytosis or macroautophagy mechanism, whereas smaller protein aggregates are degraded within the lysosomes with the help of HSP or via ubiquitin proteosomal system. Importantly, the HSPs become dysregulated in different neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, enhancement of cellular protein quality control machineries, specifically the levels and activities of molecular chaperones could suppress the misfolded protein aggregation and can restore cellular function. Several small molecules and natural polyphenols have been shown to maintain HSP levels in different neurodegenerative diseases. In this book chapter, we discuss the current understanding of the roles of HSPs in protein misfolding neurological diseases, especially on Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, prion diseases and tauopathies. In addition, we also highlighted the modulatory roles of natural polyphenols on HSPs as a therapeutic strategy for protein misfolding neurological diseases.

Keywords

Chaperone-mediated autophagy Heat shock proteins Molecular chaperones Natural polyphenols Neurodegenerative diseases Ubiquitin system 

Abbreviations

α-Syn

Alfa synuclein

Amyloid beta protein

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

AIF

Apoptosis-inducing factor

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

APPsw

Amyloid precursor protein Sweedis

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CAG

Cytosine-adenine-guanine

CHIP

C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein

CMA

Chaperone-mediated autophagy

CNS

Central nervous system

DA

Dopamine

DAT

Dopamine transporter

EGCG

Epigallocatechin gallate

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FTD-17

Frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism

GA

Gambogic acid

GSH

Reduced glutathione

HD

Huntington’s disease

HIP

HSC70-interacting protein

HOP

HSP70-HSP90 organizing protein

HSP

Heat shock protein

HSF

Heat shock factor

HSE

Heat shock element

LB

Lewy bodies

LRRK2

Leucine-rich repeat kinase-2

MAPK

Mitogen activated protein kinase

mHTT

Mutant huntingtin

MW

Molecular weight

NF-kβ

Nuclear factor kappa beta

NFT

Neurofibrillary tangle

NSAIDS

Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PINK-1

PTEN-induced putative kinase-1

PolyQ

Poly-glutamine

ppm

Parts per million

PrP

Prion protein

PrPc

Prion protein cellular form

PrPSc

Prion protein scrapie isoform

PS1

Preseniline-1

PSP

Progressive supra-nuclear palsy

pTau

Phosphorylated tau

RAC

Ribosome-associated complex

sHSP

Small heat shock protein

SNpc

Substantia-nigra pars compacta

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TRAP-1

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1

TSE

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

UCHL-1

Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1

WA

Withaferin-A

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Veterans Administration and national institute of health and the Cure HD Initiative. We thank Prof. Sally Frautschy, University of California at Los Angeles.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panchanan Maiti
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jayeeta Manna
    • 6
  1. 1.Field Neurosciences Institute Laboratory for Restorative NeurologyCentral Michigan UniversityMt. PleasantUSA
  2. 2.Program in NeuroscienceCentral Michigan UniversityMt. PleasantUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyCentral Michigan UniversityMt. PleasantUSA
  4. 4.Field Neurosciences InstituteAscension of St. MarySaginawUSA
  5. 5.Brain Research LaboratorySaginaw Valley State UniversitySaginawUSA
  6. 6.Department of Physiology (former)University of Tennessee Health Sciences CenterMemphisUSA

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