Later Mechanisms of Cardiac Development

  • Beth Taylor
  • Thomas BrandEmail author
Part of the Learning Materials in Biosciences book series (LMB)


This chapter expands upon selected processes occurring following the establishment of the first and second heart fields, previously discussed in ► Chap.  2. We will begin by exploring the establishment of the left-right axis, both in terms of ionic currents involved, the relevant signalling mediators and any mechanical interplay. We will then examine the development of the cardiac pacemaker, beginning from the electrical activity in the tubular heart, and its progressive compartmentalisation to the sinoatrial (and potentially atrioventricular) nodes. Finally, after analysing the valvular architecture of the heart and origin of the epicardium, we will conclude by briefly discussing the potential utilisation of ectopic Tbx18 induction to generate a biological pacemaker.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Imperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.National Heart and Lung Institute, Myocardial Function, Imperial College LondonLondonUK

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