Fundamental of Audio Watermarking

  • Rohit M. Thanki
Part of the Signals and Communication Technology book series (SCT)


Audio watermarking is used for such audio signal security as copyright protection and authentication. In audio watermarking, watermark is embedded into a host audio signal in such a way that the embedding content doesn’t get identified. At the same time, the embedded watermark must be robust enough against various audio watermarking attacks. The generalized watermarking framework is given by Podilchuk and Delp [1]. This chapter presents the fundamentals audio watermarking techniques such as spatial domain, transform domain, and hybrid domain.


  1. 1.
    Podilchuk CI, Delp EJ (2001) Digital watermarking: algorithms and applications. IEEE Signal Process Mag 18(4):33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Borra S, Thanki R, Dey N (2018) Digital image watermarking: theoretical and computational advances. CRC Press, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adhiya KP, Patil SA (2012) Hiding text in audio using LSB based steganography. Inf Knowl Manag 2(3):8–15Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Divya SS, Reddy MRM (2012) Hiding text in audio using multiple LSB steganography and provide security using cryptography. Int J Sci Technol Res 1(6):68–70Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kumar H (2012) Enhanced LSB technique for audio steganography. In: 2012 Third international conference on computing, communication and networking technologies (ICCCNT’12). IEEE, pp 1–4, Karur, Tamilnadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Padmashree G, Venugopala PS (2012) Audio steganography and cryptography: using LSB algorithm at 4th and 5th LSB layers. Int J Eng Innov Technol 2(4):177–181Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lam D (2003) Audio watermarking. COMPSYS401A Project. The University of Auckland, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saito S, Furukawa T, Konishi K (2002) A digital watermarking for audio data using band division based on QMF bank. In: 2002 IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech, and signal processing, vol 4. IEEE, pp IV–3473, Orlando, FL, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hsu CT, Wu JL (1999) Hidden digital watermarks in images. IEEE Trans Image Process 8(1):58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bangaleea R, Rughooputh HCS (2002) Performance improvement of spread spectrum spatial-domain watermarking scheme through diversity and attack characterisation. In: IEEE AFRICON. 6th Africon conference in Africa, vol 1. IEEE, pp 293–298, George, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cox IJ, Kilian J, Leighton T, Shamoon T (1996) Secure spread spectrum watermarking for images, audio and video. In: Proceedings of 3rd IEEE international conference on image processing, vol 3. IEEE, pp 243–246, Lausanne, Switzerland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cvejic N, Seppanen T (2003) Robust audio watermarking in wavelet domain using frequency hopping and patchwork method. In: 3rd International symposium on image and signal processing and analysis, 2003. ISPA 2003. Proceedings of the, vol 1. IEEE, pp 251–255, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cox IJ, Kilian J, Leighton T, Shamoon T (1996) A secure, robust watermark for multimedia. In: International workshop on information hiding. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 185–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shih FY (2017) Digital watermarking and steganography: fundamentals and techniques. CRC Press, UK, pp 39–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maha C, Maher E, Mohamed K, Chokri BA (2010) DCT based blind audio watermarking scheme. In: 2010 international conference on signal processing and multimedia applications (SIGMAP). IEEE, pp 139–144, Athens, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dhar PK, Khan MI, Ahmad S (2010) A new DCT-based watermarking method for copyright protection of digital audio. Int J Comput Sci Inf Technol (IJCSIT) 2(5):91–97Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Al-Haj A, Mohammad AA, Bata L (2011) DWT-based audio watermarking. Int Arab J Inf Technol 8(3):326–333Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu S, Huang J, Huang D, Shi YQ (2004) Self-synchronized audio watermark in DWT domain. In: 2004 IEEE international symposium on circuits and systems (IEEE Cat. No. 04CH37512), vol 5. IEEE, p V–V, Vancouver, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen ST, Wu GD, Huang HN (2010) Wavelet-domain audio watermarking scheme using optimisation-based quantisation. IET Signal Process 4(6):720–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fallahpour M, Megias D (2010) DWT-based high capacity audio watermarking. IEICE Trans Fundam Electron Commun Comput Sci 93(1):331–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hwang WY, Kang HI, Han SS, Kim KI, Kang HS (2003, October) Robust audio watermarking using both DWT and masking effect. In: International workshop on digital watermarking. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 382–389Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ko CS, Kim KY, Hwang RW, Kim Y, Rhee SB (2005) Robust audio watermarking in wavelet domain using pseudorandom sequences. In: Fourth annual ACIS international conference on computer and information science (ICIS’05). IEEE, pp 397–401, Jeju Island, South KoreaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Artameeyanant P (2007) Wavelet audio watermark robust against MPEG compression. In: SICE annual conference 2007. IEEE, pp 1414–1417, Takamatsu, JapanGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li W, Xue X (2003) An audio watermarking technique that is robust against random cropping. Comput Music J 27(4):58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Özer H, Sankur B, Memon N (2005) An SVD-based audio watermarking technique. In: Proceedings of the 7th workshop on multimedia and security. ACM, pp 51–56, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lei B, Soon Y, Tan EL (2013) Robust SVD-based audio watermarking scheme with differential evolution optimization. IEEE Trans Audio Speech Lang Process 21(11):2368–2378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Al-Nuaimy W, El-Bendary MA, Shafik A, Shawki F, Abou-El-azm AE, El-Fishawy NA et al (2011) An SVD audio watermarking approach using chaotic encrypted images. Digital Signal Process 21(6):764–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bhat V, Sengupta I, Das A (2011) An audio watermarking scheme using singular value decomposition and dither-modulation quantization. Multimed Tools Appl 52(2–3):369–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang J, Healy R, Timoney J (2011) A robust audio watermarking scheme based on reduced singular value decomposition and distortion removal. Signal Process 91(8):1693–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dhar PK, Shimamura T (2013) An SVD-based audio watermarking using variable embedding strength and exponential-log operations. In: 2013 international conference on informatics, electronics and vision (ICIEV). IEEE, pp 1–6, Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    El-Samie FEA (2009) An efficient singular value decomposition algorithm for digital audio watermarking. Int J Speech Technol 12(1):27–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nematollahi MA, Al-Haddad SAR, Zarafshan F (2015) Blind digital speech watermarking based on Eigen-value quantization in DWT. J King Saud Univ Comput Inf Sci 27(1):58–67Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dhar PK, Shimamura T (2015) Advances in audio watermarking based on singular value decomposition. Springer International Publishing, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dey N, Biswas D, Roy AB, Das A, Chaudhuri SS (2012) DWT-DCT-SVD based blind watermarking technique of gray image in electrooculogram signal. In: 2012 12th international conference on intelligent systems design and applications (ISDA). IEEE, pp 680–685, Kochi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bhat V, Sengupta I, Das A (2010) An adaptive audio watermarking based on the singular value decomposition in the wavelet domain. Digital Signal Process 20(6):1547–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang XY, Niu PP, Yang HY (2009) A robust digital audio watermarking based on statistics characteristics. Pattern Recogn 42(11):3057–3064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang XY, Zhao H (2006) A novel synchronization invariant audio watermarking scheme based on DWT and DCT. IEEE Trans Signal Process 54(12):4835–4840CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rohit M. Thanki
    • 1
  1. 1.C. U. Shah UniversityWadhwanIndia

Personalised recommendations