Advertisement

Religion and Spirituality in Intercultural Therapy

  • Limore Racin
  • Simon Dein
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of religion and spirituality (R/S) in intercultural therapy. We define intercultural therapy as a form of psychotherapy conducted among culturally diverse groups and as such acknowledges the importance of race, culture, beliefs, values, attitudes, religion and language in clients’ lives (Kareem, Intercultural therapy: themes, interpretations and practice. Blackwell, London, 1999). Working across cultures psychotherapeutically often involves discussion of R/S especially among many migrant groups. Literature suggests that psychotherapists are adverse to discussing religious topics (Delaney et al., Prof Psychol Res Pract 38:538–546, 2007). Here we argue that such discussions are essential. After consideration of religion in mental health, more specifically the work of Freud, Jung and religious CBT, we move on to address the inclusion of R/S themes in intercultural therapy. Here religion is defined as a cultural system of beliefs, practices, rituals and symbols designed to help the individual with sacred and/or transcendent aspects; spirituality is a personal quest for answers in relation to the meaning of life and relationships with sacred and/or transcendent aspects (Koenig, Handbook of religion and health: a century of research reviewed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001).

Keywords

Religion Spirituality Intercultural therapy Psychotherapy Psychoanalysis CBT Spiritual-based therapies 

References

  1. 1.
    Pargament KI. The psychology of religion and coping: theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stanley MA, Bush AL, Camp ME, et al. Older adults’ preferences for religion/spirituality in treatment of anxiety and depression. Aging Ment Health. 2011;15(3):334–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Keating AM, Fretz BR. Christians’ anticipations about counselors in response to counselor descriptions. J Couns Psychol. 1990;37:293–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belaire C, Young JS. Conservative Christians’ expectations of non-Christian counselors. Couns Values. 2002;46(3):175–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tan SY. Integrating spiritual direction into psychotherapy: ethical issues and guidelines. J Psychol Theol. 2003;31:14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frosh S. Hate and the ‘Jewish Science’: anti-Semitism, Nazism and psychoanalysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Freud S. Obsessive actions and religious practices. In: The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. IX (1906-1908): Jensen’s ‘Gradiva’ and other works; 1907. 115-12.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freud, S. (1913). Totem and taboo, the standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 13.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fromm E. Psychoanalysis and religion. New Haven and London: Yale University Press; 1950.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Freud S. The future of an illusion (J. Strachey, trans and ed). New York: W. W. Norton; 1989.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Freud S. Civilization and its discontents. New York: W. W. Norton; 1962.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Freud S. Moses and monotheism (K. Jones, trans). London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis; 1939.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jung CG. Psychology and alchemy. Volume 12, para. 6. In: The Collected Works of C.G. Jung; 1944.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jung CG. Psychology and alchemy. Volume 12, para. 11. In: The Collected Works of C.G. Jung; 1944.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hayes SC, Smith S. Get out of your mind and into your life: the new acceptance and commitment therapy. Oakland: New Harbinger; 2005.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Linehan MM. Understanding borderline personality disorder: the dialectic approach program manual. New York: Guilford; 1995.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Didonna F, editor. Clinical handbook of mindfulness. New York: Springer; 2009.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Segal ZV, Williams JMG, Teasdale JD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford; 2002.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ellis A. Can rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) be effectively used with people who have devout beliefs in God and religion? Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2000;31:29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beck AT. Cognitive therapy of the emotional disorders. New York: International University Press; 1976.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ellis A. Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Citadel Press; 1962.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beck JS. Cognitive behavior therapy: basics and beyond. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford; 2011.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carlson K, González-Prendes A. Cognitive behavioral therapy with religious and spiritual clients: a critical perspective. J Spiritual Mental Health. 2016;18(4):253–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kizilhan JI. Religious and cultural aspects of psychotherapy in Muslim patients from tradition-oriented societies. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2014;26(3):335–43.  https://doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2014.899203.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pearce M, Koenig H, Robins C, Nelson B, Shaw S, Cohen H, King M. Religiously integrated cognitive behavioural therapy: a new method of treatment for major depression in patients with chronic medical illness. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2015;52(1):56–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Avants SK, Margolin A. Development of spiritual self-schema therapy for the treatment of addictive and HIV risk behavior: a convergence of cognitive and Buddhist psychology. J Psychother Integr. 2004;14(3):253–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Epstein M. Thoughts without a thinker: Buddhism and psychoanalysis. Psychoanal Rev. 1995;82(4):391–406.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rubin JB. Psychotherapy and Buddhism: toward an integration. New York: Plenum Press; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Segal ZV, Teasdale JD, Williams JM, Gemar MC. The mindfulness-based cognitive therapy adherence scale: interrater reliability, adherence to protocol and treatment distinctiveness. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2002;9:131–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tarakeshwar N, Pearce MJ, Sikkema J. Development and implementation of a spiritual coping group intervention for adults living with HIV/AIDS: a pilot study. Mental Health Relig Cult. 2005;8:179–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koszycki D, Raab K, Aldosary F, Bradwejn JA. A multifaith spiritually based intervention for generalized anxiety disorder: a pilot randomized trial. J Clin Psychol. 2010;66:430–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bormann JE, Gifford AL, Shively M, Smith TL, Redwine L, Kelly A, Becker S, Gershwin M, Bone P, Belding W. Effects of spiritual mantram repetition on HIV outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. J Behav Med. 2006;29:359–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bormann JE, Hurst S, Kelly A. Responses to mantram repetition program from veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a qualitative analysis. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013;50(6):769–84.  https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2012.06.0118.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Richards PS, Berrett ME, Hardman RK, Eggett DL. Comparative efficacy of spirituality, cognitive, and emotional support groups for treating eating disorder inpatients. Eat Disord Treat Prev. 2006;14:401–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Worthington EL Jr, Hook JN, Davis DE, McDaniel MA. Religion and spirituality. J Clin Psychol In Session. 2011;67:204–14.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20760.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Williams V. Working with Muslims in counselling – identifying issues and conflicting philosophy. Int J Adv Couns. 2005;27:125–30.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-005-2258-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pope-Davis DB, Liu WM, Toporek RL, Brittan-Powell CS. What’s missing from multicultural competency research: review, introspection, and recommendations. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2001;7:121–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Winton S. Religion in the consulting room. Br J Psychother. 2013;29(3):346–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koenig H, McCullough M, Larson D. Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Delaney HD, Miller WR, Bisonó AM. Religiosity and spirituality among psychologists: a survey of clinician members of the American Psychological Association. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2007;38(5):538–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bergin AE. Values and religious issues in psychotherapy and mental health. Am Psychol. 1991;46(4):394.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hage SM, Hopson A, Siegel M, Payton G, DeFanti E. Multicultural training in spirituality: an interdisciplinary review. Couns Values. 2006;50(3):217–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dwyer M. Religion, spirituality, and social work: a quantitative and qualitative study on the behaviors of social workers conducting individual therapy. Smith College Stud Soc Work. 2010;80(2):139–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hoffman L, Cox RH, Ervin-Cox B, Mitchell M. Training issues in spirituality and psychotherapy: a foundational approach. In: Cox RH, Ervin-Cox B, Hoffman L, editors. Spirituality and psychological health. Colorado Springs: Colorado School of Professional Psychology Press; 2005. p. 3–14.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rosmarin DH, Green D, Pirutinsky S, McKay D. Attitudes toward spirituality/religion among members of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2013;44(6):424–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rizzuto A-M. The birth of the living god: a psychoanalytic study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1979.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Meissner W. Psychoanalysis and religious experience. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1984.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pargament KI, Mahoney A, Exline JJ, Jones JW, Shafranske EP. From research to practice: toward an applied psychology of religion and spirituality. In: Pargament KI, Mahoney A, Shafranske EP, editors. APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality: volume II. Washington: APA; 2013. p. 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gause R, Coholic D. Mindfulness-based practices as a holistic philosophy and method. Curr Sch Hum Serv. 2010;9(2):1–23.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cantor G. Book review of the hidden Freud: his Hassidic roots. Psychodyn Pract. 2016;22(2):196–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hathaway WL, Scott SY, Garver SA. Assessing religious/spiritual functioning: a neglected domain in clinical practice? Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2004;35(1):97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fingarette H. The self in transformation: psychoanalysis, philosophy and the life of the spirit. New York: Harper Torchbooks; 1963.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bordin ES. The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychother Theory Res Pract. 1979;16(3):252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lovinger RJ. Working with religious issues in therapy. New York: Jason Aronson; 1984.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hill PC, Pargament KI, Hood RW Jr, McCullough ME, Swyers JP, Larson DB, Zinnbauer BJ. Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: points of commonality, points of departure. J Theory Soc Behav. 2000;30:51–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Crossley D. Religious experience within mental illness. Opening the door on research. Br J Psychiatry. 1995;166(3):284–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Whitley R. Religious competence as cultural competence. Transcult Psychiatry. 2012;49(2):245–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sanders BG. Christianity after Freud: an interpretation of the Christian experience in the light of psycho-analytic theory. London: Bless; 1949.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nkomo S, Cox T Jr. Diverse identities in organisations. In: Clegg SR, et al., editors. The handbook of organization studies. London: Sage; 1996. p. 338–56.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Grom B. Religiosität/Spiritualität – eine Ressource für Menschen mit psychischen Problemen? [Religiousness/spirituality – a resource for people with psychological problems?]. Psychotherapeut. 2012;3:94–201.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Petreet JR, Lu FG, Narrow WE. Religious and spiritual issues in psychiatric diagnosis. A research agenda for DSM-V. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association; 2011.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hodge DR. Spiritually modified cognitive therapy: a review of the literature. Soc Work. 2006;51:157–66.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/51.2.157.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hook JN, Worthington EL, Davis DE, Jennings DJ II, Gartner AL, Hook JP. Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies. J Clin Psychol. 2010;66:46–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pargament KI. Spiritually integrated psychotherapy: understanding and addressing the sacred. New York: Guilford; 2007.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wohl J. Integration of cultural awareness into psychotherapy. Am J Psychother. 1989;43(3):343–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Seiden D. The effect of research on practice in cross-cultural behavior therapy: a single case study (You’re the case). Behav Ther. 1999;22:200–1.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Draguns JG. Abnormal behavior patterns across cultures: Implications for counseling and psychotherapy. Int J Intercult Relat. 1997;21:213–48. Special issue: Training global psychologists.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Asnaani A, Hofmann S. Collaboration in culturally responsive therapy: establishing a strong therapeutic alliance across cultural lines. J Clin Psychol. 2012;68(2):187–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lonner WJ, Ibrahim FA. Appraisal and assessment in cross-cultural counseling. In: Pedersen PB, Draguns JG, Lomer WJ, Trimble J, editors. Counseling across cultures. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 1996. p. 293–322.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bossman DM. Teaching pluralism: values to cross-cultural barriers. In: Kelley ML, editor. Understanding cultural diversity: culture, curriculum, and community in nursing. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett; 2000. p. 55–66.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gbadegesin S. Bioethics and cultural diversity. In: Kuhse H, Singer P, editors. A companion to bioethics. Oxford: Blackwell; 1998. p. 24–31.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Landrine H. Clinical implications of cultural differences: the referential versus the indexical self. Clin Psychol Rev. 1992;12:401–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tseng WS. Culture and psychotherapy. In: Tseng WS, Streltzer J, editors. Cultural competence in clinical psychiatry. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2004. p. 181–98.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chiu RK, Kosinski FA. Chinese cultural collectivism and work-related stress: implications for employment counselors. J Employ Couns. 1995;32(3):98–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pedersen PB. A handbook for developing multicultural awareness. 3rd ed. Alexandria: American Counseling Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lago C. Race, culture and counselling: the ongoing challenge. 2nd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill; 2006.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schofield W. Psychotherapy: the purchase of friendship. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1964.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sundberg N. Cross-cultural counseling and psychotherapy: a research overview. In: Marsella AJ, Pedersen PB, editors. Cross-cultural counseling and psychotherapy. 2nd ed. New York: Pergamon Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bhugra D, Becker M. Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity. World Psychiatry. 2005;4(1):18–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Miovic M, McCarthy M, Badaracco MA, Greenberg W, Fitzmaurice GM, Peteet JR. Domains of discussion in psychotherapy: what do patients really want? Am J Psychother. 2006;60(1):71–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Barrett DB, Johnson TM. World Christians database: atheist/nonreligious by country: world Christian trends: William Carey Library; 2007. http://www.worldchristiandatabase.org/wcd.

Suggested Readings

  1. 1.
    Kareem J. Intercultural therapy: themes, interpretations and practice. London: Blackwell; 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koenig H. Handbook of religion and health: a century of research reviewed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Limore Racin
    • 1
  • Simon Dein
    • 1
  1. 1.Goldsmiths College, University of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations