Kidney, Adrenal Gland, and Retroperitoneum

  • Alarice C. LoweEmail author
Part of the Practical Anatomic Pathology book series (PAP)


Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of kidney, adrenal, and retroperitoneal lesions yields challenging specimens in cytology due to the variety of diagnostic entities that can be encountered and their relative infrequency. Familiarity with the clinical and radiologic context is key to answer pertinent clinical questions at the time of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and to render the complete final diagnosis for the case. This chapter is intended to provide a practical guide to cytopathologists evaluating these specimens in real time. It provides guidance on which entities to expect at the time of biopsy, how to allocate fresh specimen to maximize diagnostic yield, important information to convey at the time of ROSE, and key points that should be addressed in the final report, including classification and grading. An emphasis is placed on radiologic correlation, new entities and updates in recent WHO Classifications, ancillary testing, and potential pitfalls.


Kidney Adrenal Retroperitoneum FNA Biopsy Cytology Cancer Diagnosis ROSE 



Computed tomography


Endoscopic ultrasound


Fluorescence in situ hybridization


Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded


Fine needle aspiration


Gastrointestinal stromal tumor


Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome




Multiparametric magnetic resonance


Nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio


Rapid on-site evaluation


World Health Organization


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

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