Advertisement

The Status of Latinx Occupational Health

  • Sara A. QuandtEmail author
  • Thomas A. Arcury
Chapter

Abstract

Latinx workers comprise more than 16% of the total US workforce and are overrepresented in some industries including construction, agriculture/forestry/fishing/hunting, and leisure/hospitality. In this chapter, we review the industries and occupations that disproportionately employ Latinx workers, outline the rates of fatal and nonfatal injuries within these industries and occupations, highlight several key features of the work context to understand hazards and injury risks, describe conceptual approaches to studying Latinx worker health, and examine successful strategies to research and intervention. We also provide research and intervention needs and priorities of Latinx workers in the USA.

Keywords

Latinx Worker health Occupational health Industry Hazard 

References

  1. Arcury, T. A., Austin, C. K., Quandt, S. A., & Saavedra, R. (1999). Enhancing community participation in a public health project: Farmworkers and agricultural chemicals in North Carolina. Health Education & Behavior, 26, 563–578.Google Scholar
  2. Arcury, T. A., Cartwright, M. S., Chen, H., Rosenbaum, D. A., Walker, F. O., Mora, D. C., et al. (2014). Musculoskeletal and neurological injuries associated with work organization among immigrant Latino women manual workers in North Carolina. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57, 468–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arcury, T. A., Chen, H., Laurienti, P. J., Howard, T. D., Barr, D. B., Mora, D. C., et al. (2017). Farmworker and nonfarmworker Latino immigrant men in North Carolina have high levels of specific pesticide urinary metabolites. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 16, 1–9.Google Scholar
  4. Arcury, T. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Anderson, A. M., Mora, D. C., Carrillo, L., Chen, H., et al. (2012). Personal protective equipment and work safety climate among Latino poultry processing workers in western North Carolina, USA. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 18, 320–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arcury, T. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Barr, D. B., Tapia, J., Chen, H., & Quandt, S. A. (2007). Pesticide urinary metabolite levels of children in eastern North Carolina farmworker households. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, 1254–1260.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Arcury, T. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Chen, H., Mora, D. C., & Quandt, S. A. (2014). Work organization and health among immigrant women: Latina manual workers in North Carolina. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 2445–2452.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Arcury, T. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Chen, H., Vallejos, Q. M., Galván, L., Whalley, L. E., et al. (2009). Variation across the agricultural season in organophosphorus pesticide urinary metabolite levels for Latino farmworkers in eastern North Carolina: Project design and descriptive results. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 52, 539–550.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Arcury, T. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Talton, J. W., Chen, H., Vallejos, Q. M., Galván, L., et al. (2010). Repeated pesticide exposure among North Carolina migrant and seasonal farmworkers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53, 802–813.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Arcury, T. A., Kearney, G. D., Rodriguez, G., Arcury, J. T., & Quandt, S. A. (2015). Work safety culture of youth farmworkers in North Carolina: A pilot study. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 344–350.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Arcury, T. A., Laurienti, P. J., Chen, H., Howard, T. D., Barr, D. B., Mora, D. C., et al. (2016). Organophosphate pesticide urinary metabolites among Latino immigrants: North Carolina farmworkers and non-farmworkers compared. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58, 1079–1086.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Arcury, T. A., & Marín, A. J. (2009). Latino/ farmworkers and farm work in the eastern United States: The context for health, safety, and justice. In T. A. Arcury & S. A. Quandt (Eds.), Latino farmworkers in the eastern United States: Health, safety, and justice (pp. 15–36). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Arcury, T. A., Marín, A., Snively, B. M., Hernández-Pelletier, M., & Quandt, S. A. (2009). Reducing farmworker residential pesticide exposure: Evaluation of a lay health advisor intervention. Health Promotion Practice, 10, 447–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arcury, T. A., Mills, T., Marin A. J., Summers, P., Quandt, S. A., Rushing, J., … Grzywacz, J. G. (2012). Work safety climate and safety practices among immigrant Latino residential construction workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55, 736–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Arcury, T. A., Mora, D. C., & Quandt, S. A. (2015). “…you earn money by suffering pain:” Beliefs about carpal tunnel syndrome among Latino poultry processing workers. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17, 791–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Arcury, T. A., O’Hara, H., Grzywacz, J. G., Isom, S., Chen, H., & Quandt, S. A. (2012). Work safety climate, musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured, and depression among migrant farmworkers in North Carolina. American Journal of Public Health, 102, S272–S278.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Arcury, T. A., & Quandt, S. A. (2009). Pesticide exposure among farmworkers and their families in the eastern United States: Matters of safety and environmental justice. In T. A. Arcury & S. A. Quandt (Eds.), Latino farmworkers in the eastern United States: Health, safety, and justice (pp. 103–129). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Arcury, T. A., & Quandt, S. A. (2017). Community-based participatory research and occupational health disparities: Pesticide exposure among immigrant farmworkers. In F. Leong, D. Eggerth, D. Chang, M. Flynn, K. Ford, & R. Martinez R (Eds.), Occupational health disparities: Improving the well-being of ethnic and racial minority workers (pp. 89–112). Washington, DC: APA Press.Google Scholar
  18. Arcury, T. A., Quandt, S. A., Austin, C. K., Preisser, J., & Cabrera, L. F. (1999). Implementation of US-EPA’s Worker Protection Standard training for agricultural laborers: An evaluation using North Carolina data. Public Health Reports, 114, 459–468.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Arcury, T. A., Quandt, S. A., Preisser, J. S., Bernert, J. T., Norton, D., & Wang, J. (2003). High levels of transdermal nicotine exposure produce green tobacco sickness in Latino farmworkers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 5, 315–321.Google Scholar
  20. Arcury, T. A., Summers, P., Carrillo, L., Grzywacz, J. G., Quandt, S. A., & Mills, T. H. (2014). Occupational safety beliefs among Latino residential roofing workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57, 718–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Arcury, T. A., Summers, P., Rushing, J., Grzywacz, J. G., Mora, D. C., Quandt, S. A., … Mills, T. H. (2015). Work safety climate, personal protection use, and injuries among Latino residential roofers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58, 69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Arcury, T. A., Trejo, G., Suerken, C. K., Grzywacz, J. G., Ip, E. H., & Quandt, S. A. (2015). Work and health among Latina mothers in farmworker families. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 292–299.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Arcury, T. A., Weir, M., Chen, H., Summers, P., Pelletier, L. E., Galván, L., … Quandt, S. A. (2012). Migrant farmworker housing regulation violations in North Carolina. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55, 191–204.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Baker, D., & Chappelle, D. (2012). Health status and needs of Latino dairy farmworkers in Vermont. Journal of Agromedicine, 17, 277–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Bouchard, M. F., Chevrier, J., Harley, K. G., Kogut, K., Vedar, M., Calderon, N., … Eskenazi, B. (2011). Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119, 1189–1195.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Buchanan, S., Vossenas, P., Krause, N., Moriarty, J., Frumin, E., Shimek, J., et al. (2010). Occupational injury disparities in the US hotel industry. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53, 116–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor. (2016a). Census of fatal occupational injuries (CFOI) 2015, released December 16, 2016. https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcfoi1.htm#2015.
  29. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor. (2016b). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2015. BLS Reports, Report 1062, September, 2016. http://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2015/home.htm.
  30. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor. (2016c). Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work, 2015, released November 10, 2016. https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcdnew.htm.
  31. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor. (2017). Labor force statistics from Current Population Survey, 2016. Last modified date: February 8, 2017. https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat18.htm.
  32. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor [BLS]. (2015). Hispanics and Latinos in industries and occupations. TED: The Economics Daily, October 9. http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2015/s-and-latinos-in-industries-and-occupations.htm.
  33. Bush, D. E., Wilmsen, C., Sasaki, T., Barton-Antonio, D., Steege, A. L., & Chang, C. (2014). Evaluation of a pilot promotora program for Latino forest workers in southern Oregon. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57, 788–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Calvert, G. M., Beckman, J., Prado, J. B., Bojes, H., Schwartz, A., Mulay, P., et al. (2016). Acute occupational pesticide-related illness and injury—United States, 2007–2011. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63, 11–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Campe, J., Hoare, L., Hagopian, A., & Keifer, M. (2011). Using community-based methods and a social ecological framework to explore workplace health and safety of bloqueros on the Olympic Peninsula. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 54, 438–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cartwright, M. S., Walker, F. O., Blocker, J. N., Schulz, M. R., Arcury, T. A., Grzywacz, J. G., et al. (2012). The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in Latino poultry-processing workers and other Latino manual workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54, 198–201.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Center for Construction Research and Training. (2013). The construction chart book: The US construction industry and its workers (5th ed.). Silver Spring, MD: CPWR.Google Scholar
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2008). Heat-related deaths among crop workers—United States, 1992–2006. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57, 649–653.Google Scholar
  39. Cooper, M. D. (2000). Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science, 36, 111–136.Google Scholar
  40. Dong, X., & Platner, J. W. (2004). Occupational fatalities of construction workers from 1992 to 2000. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 45, 45–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dong, X. S., Wang, X., & Daw, C. CPWR Data Center. (2010). Fatal and nonfatal injuries among construction workers. CPWR Data Brief, 2, 1–19. http://www.cpwr.com/pdfs/_Data_Brief3.pdf.
  42. Eggerth, D., Delaney, S., Flynn, M., & Jacobson, J. (2012). Work experiences of Latina immigrants: A qualitative study. Journal of Career Development, 39, 13–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Fair Food Program. (2015). Fair Food Program 2015 Annual Report. http://www.fairfoodprogram.org/.
  44. Farquhar, S., Samples, J., Ventura, S., Davis, S., Abernathy, M., McCauley, L., … Shadbeh, N. (2008). Promoting the occupational health of indigenous farmworkers. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 10, 269–280.Google Scholar
  45. Fine, J. (2006). Worker centers: Organizing communities at the edge of the dream. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Flocks, J., Clarke, L., Albrecht, S., Bryant, C., Monaghan, P., & Baker, H. (2001). Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(Suppl 3), 461–468.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Flocks, J., Monaghan, P., Albrecht, S., & Bahena, A. (2007). Florida farmworkers’ perceptions and lay knowledge of occupational pesticides. Journal of Community Health, 32, 181–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Flynn, M. A., Eggerth, D. E., & Jacobson, C. J., Jr. (2015). Undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational safety and health: The workers’ perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58, 1127–1137.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Forst, L., Ahonen, E., Zanoni, J., Holloway-Beth, A., Oschner, M., Kimmel, L., et al. (2013). More than training: Community-based participatory research to reduce injuries among construction workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56, 827–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gabbard, S. (2015). Changing trends in crop agriculture and migrant crop workers. Presented at the Interstate Migrant Education Council Symposium, October 2015, Clearwater, FL. https://www.doleta.gov/naws/pages/research/presentations.cfm.
  51. Galvin, F. H., Wohl, A. R., Carlos, J. A., & Chen, Y. T. (2015). Chronic stress among Latino day laborers. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 37, 75–89.Google Scholar
  52. Griffith, D. (2012). Labor recruitment and immigration in the Eastern North Carolina food industry. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 19, 102–118.Google Scholar
  53. Grzywacz, J. G. (2009). Mental health among farmworkers in the Eastern United States. In T. A. Arcury & S. A. Quandt (Eds.), Latino farmworkers in the eastern United States: Health, safety, and justice (pp. 153–172). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Grzywacz, J. G., Arcury, T. A., Marín, A., Carrillo, L., Coates, M. L., Burke, B., et al. (2009). Using lay health promoters in occupational health: Outcome evaluation in a sample of Latino poultry processing workers. New Solutions, 19, 449–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grzywacz, J. G., Arcury, T. A., Mora, D., Anderson, A., Chen, H., Rosenbaum, D. A., … Quandt, S. A. (2012). Work organization and musculoskeletal health: Clinical findings among immigrant Latino workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54, 995–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grzywacz, J. G., Lipscomb, H. J., Casanova, V., Neis, B., Fraser, C., Monaghan, P., et al. (2013). Organization of work in the agricultural, forestry, and fishing sector in the US Southeast: Implications for immigrant workers’ occupational safety and health. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56, 925–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Guendelman, S., Malin, C., Herr-Harthorn, B., & Vargas, P. N. (2001). Orientations to motherhood and male partner support among women in Mexico and Mexican-origin women in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, 52, 1805–1813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Heine, B., Quandt, S. A., & Arcury, T. A. (2017). Aguantamos: Limits to Latino migrant farmworker agency in North Carolina labor camps. Human Organization, 76, 240–250.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Holmes, S. M. (2013). Fresh fruit, broken bodies: Migrant farm workers in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  60. Johnson, J. V., & Hall, E. M. (1988). Job strain, work place social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1336–1342.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Karasek, R. A., Jr. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 285–308.Google Scholar
  62. Kearney, G. D., Rodriguez, G., Arcury, J. T., Quandt, S. A., & Arcury, T. A. (2015). Work safety climate, safety behaviors, and occupational injuries of youth farmworkers in North Carolina. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 1336–1343.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Keifer, M., Rodríguez-Guzmán, J., Watson, J., van Wendel de Joode, B., Mergler, D., & da Silva, A. S. (2016). Worker health and safety and climate change in the Americas: Issues and research needs. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 40, 192–197.Google Scholar
  64. Kleinman, A. (1980). Patients and healers in the context of culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  65. Kleinman, A. (1988). Illness narratives: Suffering, healing and the human condition. New York: Basic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Lambert, W. E., Lasarev, M., Muniz, J., Scherer, J., Rothlein, J., Santana, J., et al. (2005). Variation in organophosphate pesticide metabolites in urine of children living in agricultural communities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 504–508.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Landsbergis, P. A., Grzywacz, J. G., & LaMontagne, A. D. (2014). Work organization, job insecurity, and occupational health disparities. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57, 495–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lang, J., Ochsmann, E., Kraus, T., & Lang, J. W. (2012). Psychosocial work stressors as antecedents of musculoskeletal problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis of stability-adjusted longitudinal studies. Social Science and Medicine, 75, 1163–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Leatherman, T. (2005). A space of vulnerability in poverty and health: Political-ecology and biocultural analysis. Ethos, 33, 46–70.Google Scholar
  70. Leibler, J. H., & Perry, M. J. (2017). Self-reported occupational injuries among industrial beef slaughterhouse workers in the Midwestern United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14, 23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Liebman, A. K., Juárez, P. M., Leyva, C., & Corona, A. (2007). A pilot program using promotoras de salud to educate farmworker families about the risk from pesticide exposure. Journal of Agromedicine, 12, 33–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Luchman, J. N., & González-Morales, M. G. (2013). Demands, control, and support: A meta-analytic review of work characteristics interrelationships. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 37–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Luque, J. S., Mason, M., Reyes-Garcia, C., Hinojosa, A., & Meade, C. D. (2011). Salud es vida: Development of a cervical cancer education curriculum for promotora outreach with Latina farmworkers in rural Southern Georgia. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 2233–2235.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Luque, J. S., Monaghan, P., Contreras, R. B., August, E., Baldwin, J. A., Bryant, C. A., et al. (2007). Implementation evaluation of a culturally competent eye injury prevention program for citrus workers in a Florida migrant community. Progress in Community Health Partnerships, 1, 359–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Marín, A., Carrillo, L., Arcury, T. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Coates, M. L., & Quandt, S. A. (2009). Ethnographic evaluation of a lay health promoter program to reduce occupational injuries among Latino poultry processing workers. Public Health Reports, 124(suppl. 1), 36–43.Google Scholar
  76. McCauley, L., Runkle, J. D., Samples, J., Williams, B., Muniz, J. F., Semple, M., et al. (2013). Oregon indigenous farmworkers: Results of promotor intervention on pesticide knowledge and organophosphate metabolite levels. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55, 1164–1170.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. McDevitt, J. (2010). Compromise is complicity: Why there is no middle road in the struggle to protect day laborers in the United States. ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law, 26, 101–121.Google Scholar
  78. Menzel, N. N., & Shrestha, P. P. (2012). Social marketing to plan a fall prevention program for Latino construction workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55, 729–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mora, D. C., Arcury, T. A., & Quandt, S. A. (2016). Good job, bad job: Occupational perceptions among Latino poultry workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 59, 877–886.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Nevin, R. L., Bernt, J., & Hodgson, M. (2017). Association of poultry processing industry exposures with reports of occupational finger amputations: Results of an analysis of OSHA Severe Injury Report (SIR) data. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59, e159–e163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Ochsner, M., Marshall, E., Kimmel, L., Martino, C., Cunningham, R., & Hoffner, K. (2008). Immigrant Latino day laborers in New Jersey: Baseline data from a participatory research project. New Solutions, 18, 57–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ochsner, M., Marshall, E. G., Martino, C., Pabelón, M. C., Kimmel, L., & Rostran, D. (2012). Beyond the classroom: A case study of immigrant safety liaisons in residential construction. New Solutions, 22, 365–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Organista, K. C., & Kubo, A. (2005). Pilot survey of HIV risk and contextual problems and issues of Mexican/Latino migrant day laborers. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7, 269–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ornelas, I. J., Allen, C., Vaughan, C., Williams, E. C., & Negi, N. (2015). Vida PURA: A cultural adaptation of screening and brief intervention to reduce unhealthy drinking among Latino day laborers. Substance Abuse, 36, 264–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Orrenius, P. A., & Zavodny, M. (2009). Do immigrants work in riskier jobs? Demography, 3, 535–551.Google Scholar
  86. Prado, J. B., Mulay, P. R., Kasner, E. J., Bojes, H. K., & Calvert, G. M. (2017). Acute pesticide-related illness among farmworkers: Barriers to reporting to public health authorities. Journal of Agromedicine, 22, 395–405.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Quandt, S. A., Arcury, T. A., Austin, C. K., & Cabrera, L. F. (2001). Preventing occupational exposure to pesticides: Using participatory research with Latino farmworkers to develop an intervention. Journal of Immigrant Health, 3, 85–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Quandt, S. A., Arcury, T. A., Austin, C. K., & Saavedra, R. (1998). Farmworker and farmer perceptions of farmworker agricultural chemical exposure in North Carolina. Human Organization, 57, 359–368.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Quandt, S. A., Arcury, T. A., Preisser, J. S., Bernert, J. T., & Norton, D. (2001). Environmental and behavioral predictors of salivary cotinine in Latino tobacco workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 43, 844–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Quandt, S. A., Arcury-Quandt, A. E., Lawlor, E. J., Carrillo, L., Marín, A. J., Grzywacz, J. G., et al. (2013). 3-D jobs and health disparities: The health implications of Latino chicken catchers’ working conditions. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56, 206–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Quandt, S. A., Austin, C. K., Arcury, T. A., Summers, M., & Saavedra, R. (1999). Agricultural chemical training materials for farmworkers: Review and annotated bibliography. Journal of Agromedicine, 6, 3–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Quandt, S. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Marín, A., Carrillo, L., Coates, M. L., Burke, B., et al. (2006). Illnesses and injuries reported by Latino poultry workers in western North Carolina. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 49, 343–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Quandt, S. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Talton, J. W., Trejo, G., Tapia, J., D’Agostino, R. B., Jr., … Arcury, T. A. (2013). Evaluating the effectiveness of a lay health promoter-led community-based participatory pesticide safety intervention with farmworker families. Health Promotion Practice, 14, 425–432.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Quandt, S. A., Lane, C. M., Grzywacz, J. G., Marín, A., Carrillo, L., Coates, M. L., & Arcury, T. A. (2004). La historia de María. [Maria’s story]. [Flip chart]. Winston-Salem, NC: Wake Forest School of Medicine.Google Scholar
  95. Quandt, S. A., Lane, C. M., Grzywacz, J. G., Marín, A., Carrillo, L., Coates, M. L., & Arcury, T. A. (2008). Javier no recibe sup ago. [Javier doesn’t get paid]. [Flip chart]. Winston-Salem, NC: Wake Forest School of Medicine.Google Scholar
  96. Quandt, S. A., Pope, C. N., Chen, H., Summers, P., & Arcury, T. A. (2015). Longitudinal assessment of blood cholinesterase activities over 2 consecutive years among Latino nonfarmworkers and pesticide-exposed farmworkers in North Carolina. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 851–857.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Quandt, S. A., Walker, F. O., Talton, J. W., Chen, H., & Arcury, T. A. (2017). Olfactory function in Latino farmworkers over 2 years: Longitudinal exploration of subclinical neurological effects of pesticide exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59, 1148–1152.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Quandt, S. A., Walker, F. O., Talton, J. W., Summers, P., Chen, H., McLeod, D. K., et al. (2016). Olfactory function in Latino farmworkers: Subclinical neurological effects of pesticide exposure in a vulnerable population. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58, 248–253.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Quandt, S. A., Wiggins, M. F., Chen, H., Bischoff, W. E., & Arcury, T. A. (2013). Heat index in migrant farmworker housing: Implications for rest and recovery from work-related heat stress. American Journal of Public Health, 103, e24–e26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Quesada, J., Hart, L. K., & Bourgois, P. (2011). Structural vulnerability and health: Latino migrant laborers in the United States. Medical Anthropology, 30, 339–362.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Quirós-Alcalá, L., Bradman, A., Nishioka, M., Harnly, M. E., Hubbard, A., McKone, T. E., et al. (2011). Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: An observational measurement study. Environmental Health, 10, 19.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Raanan, R., Balmes, J. R., Harley, K. G., Gunier, R. B., Magzamen, S., Bradman, A., et al. (2016). Decreased lung function in 7-year-old children with early-life organophosphate exposure. Thorax, 71, 148–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rathod, J. M. (2016). Danger and dignity: Immigrant day laborers and occupational risk. Seton Hall Law Review, 46, 813–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rhodes, S. D., Foley, K. L., Zometa, C. S., & Bloom, F. R. (2007). Lay health advisor interventions among s/Latinos: A qualitative systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 418–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rhodes, S. D., Hergenrather, K. C., Bloom, F. R., Leichliter, J. S., & Montaño, J. (2009). Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health adviser HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina. AIDS Education and Prevention, 21(5 Suppl), 103–108.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Rodriguez, G., Trejo, G., Schiemann, E., Quandt, S. A., Daniel, S. S., Sandberg, J. C., et al. (2016). Latina workers in North Carolina: Work organization, domestic responsibilities, health, and family life. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 18, 687–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rosenbaum, D. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Chen, H., Arcury, T. A., Schulz, M. R., Blocker, J. N., et al. (2013). Prevalence of epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, and low back pain in Latino poultry workers and manual laborers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56, 226–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rowe, C., Gunier, R., Bradman, A., Harley, K. G., Kogut, K., Parra, K., et al. (2016). Residential proximity to organophosphate and carbamate pesticide use during pregnancy, poverty during childhood, and cognitive functioning in 10-year-old children. Environmental Research, 150, 128–137.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Sagransky, M. J., Pichardo-Geisinger, R. O., Muñoz-Ali, D., Feldman, S. R., Mora, D. C., & Quandt, S. A. (2012). Pachydermodactyly from repetitive motion in poultry processing workers: A report of 2 cases. Archives of Dermatology, 148, 925–928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Salazar, M. K., Keifer, M., Negrete, M., Estrada, F., & Synder, K. (2005). Occupational risk among orchard workers: A descriptive study. Family & Community Health, 28, 239–252.Google Scholar
  111. Salvatore, A. L., Castorina, R., Camacho, J., Morga, N., López, J., Nishioka, M., et al. (2015). Home-based community health worker intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers’ children: A randomized-controlled trial. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 25, 608–615.Google Scholar
  112. Sauter, S. L., Brightwell, W. S., Colligan, M. J., Hurrell, J. J., Katz, T. M., LeGrande, D. E., … Tetrick, L. E. (2002). The changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: Knowledge gaps and research directions. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication, 2002-116. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.Google Scholar
  113. Sexsmith, K. (2016). Exit, voice, constrained loyalty, and entrapment: Migrant farmworkers and the expression of discontent on New York dairy farms. Citizenship Studies, 20, 311–325.Google Scholar
  114. Shrestha, P. P., & Menzel, N. N. (2014). Construction workers and assertiveness training. Work, 49, 517–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Snyder, L. A., Krauss, A. D., Chen, P. Y., Finlinson, S., & Huang, Y.-H. (2008). Occupational safety: Application of the job demand-control-support model. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 1713–1723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Spector, J. T., Bonauto, D. K., Sheppard, L., Busch-Isaksen, T., Calkins, M., Adams, D., et al. (2016). A case-crossover study of heat exposure and injury risk in outdoor agricultural workers. PLoS ONE, 11, e0164498.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Spector, J., Krenz, J., & Blank, K. (2015). Risk factors for heat-related illness in Washington crop workers. Journal of Agromedicine, 20, 349–359.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Stein, L. J., Gunier, R. B., Harley, K., Kogut, K., Bradman, A., & Eskenazi, B. (2016). Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: The CHAMACOS cohort. Neurotoxicology, 56, 180–187.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Striffler, S. (2005). Chicken: The dangerous transformation of America’s favorite food. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Swanberg, J. E., Clouser, J. M., Browning, S. R., Westneat, S. C., & Marsh, M. K. (2013). Occupational health among Latino horse and crop workers in Kentucky: The role of work organization factors. Journal of Agromedicine, 18, 312–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Thompson, B., Coronado, G. D., Grossman, J. E., Puschel, K., Solomon, C. C., Islas, I., … Fenske, R. A. (2003). Pesticide take-home pathway among children of agricultural workers: Study design, methods, and baseline findings. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45, 42–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Thompson, B., Griffith, W. C., Barr, D. B., Coronado, G. D., Vigoren, E. M., & Faustman, E. M. (2014). Variability in the take-home pathway: Farmworkers and non-farmworkers and their children. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 24, 522–531.Google Scholar
  123. Toossi, M. (2015). Labor force projections to 2024. Monthly Labor Review, December. http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2015/article/labor-force-projections-to-2024.htm.
  124. Tovar-Aguilar, J. A., Monaghan, P. F., Bryant, C. A., Esposito, A., Wade, M., … Ruiz, O. (2014). Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers. Journal of Agromedicine, 19, 107–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Vallejos, Q. M., Quandt, S. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Isom, S., Chen, H., … Galván, L. (2011). Migrant farmworkers’ housing conditions across an agricultural season in North Carolina. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 54, 533–544.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Vandenberg, L. N., Blumberg, B., Antoniou, M. N., Benbrook, C. M., Carroll, L., … Colborn, T. (2017). Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 71, 613–618.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Walter, N., Bougois, P., Loinaz, H. M., & Schillinger, D. (2002). Social context of work injury among undocumented day laborers in San Francisco. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17, 221–229.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Walter, N., Bourgois, P., & Loinaz, H. M. (2004). Masculinity and undocumented labor migration: Injured Latino day laborers in San Francisco. Social Science and Medicine, 59, 1159–1168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Welton, M., DeJoy, D., Castellanos, M. E., Ebell, M., Shen, Y., & Robb, S. (2017). Ethnic disparities of perceived safety climate among construction workers in Georgia, 2015. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-017-0394-5. [Epub ahead of print].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Whalley, L. E., Grzywacz, J. G., Quandt, S. A., Vallejos, Q. M., Walkup, M., Chen, H., … Arcury, T. A. (2009). Migrant farmworker field and camp safety and sanitation in eastern North Carolina. Journal of Agromedicine, 14, 421–436.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Wiggins, M. (2009). Farm labor and the struggle for justice in the Eastern United States fields (pp. 201–220). In T. A. Arcury & S. A. Quandt (Eds.), Latino farmworkers in the eastern United States: Health, safety, and justice (pp. 201–220). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  132. Williams, Q., Jr., Ochsner, M., Marshall, E., Kimmel, L., & Martino, C. (2010). The impact of a peer-led participatory health and safety training program for Latino day laborers in construction. Journal of Safety Research, 41, 253–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Zohar, D. (1980). Safety climate in industrial organizations: Theoretical and applied implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Zohar, D. (2010). Thirty years of safety climate research: Reflections and future directions. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1517–1522.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and PreventionWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family and Community MedicineWake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center BoulevardWinston-SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations