Advertisement

Disability Among the Latinx Population: Epidemiology and Empowerment Interventions

  • Fabricio E. BalcazarEmail author
  • Sandra Magaña
  • Yolanda Suarez-Balcazar
Chapter

Abstract

The significant increase in the Latinx population in the USA has also resulted in an increase in Latinx persons with disabilities. This chapter provides an overview of the prevalence and the most common types of disability in the Latinx population and a review of the health care status and barriers to health care experienced by Latinx persons. Empowerment-based interventions to address some of the barriers are also discussed here. We close the chapter with a discussion of implications for future research.

Keywords

Latinx Disability Health Empowerment Intervention 

References

  1. Albrecht, T. J. (2007). Challenges and service needs of undocumented Mexican undergraduate students: Students’ voices and administrators’ perspectives. The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Retrieved from http://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/3542.
  2. American Community Survey. (2013). 2013 American community survey 1-year estimates [Data file]. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk.
  3. Balcazar, F. B., Hayes-Kelly, E., Keys, C. B., & Balfanz-Vertiz, K. (2011). Using peer mentoring to support the rehabilitation of individuals with violently acquired spinal cord injuries. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 42, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balcazar, F. E., Keys, C. B., Kaplan, D. L., & Suarez-Balcazar, Y. (1998). Participatory action research with disabilities: Principles and challenges. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 12, 105–112.Google Scholar
  5. Balcazar, F. E., Keys, C., & Suarez-Balcazar, Y. (2001). Empowering Latinos with disabilities to address issues of independent living and disability rights: A capacity building approach. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 21(2), 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balcazar, F.E., & Suarez-Balcazar, Y. (2016). Promoting empowerment among individuals with disabilities. In M. A. Bond, C. B. Keys, & I. Serrano-García (Eds.), APA handbook of community psychology (Vol. 2). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4311524.aspx?tab=2.
  7. Balcazar, F. E., Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Keys, C., & Taylor-Ritzler, T. (2010). Race, culture, and disability: Rehabilitation science and practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Bennett-Cattaneo, L., & Chapman, A. R. (2010). The process of empowerment: A model for use in research and practice. American Psychologist, 65(7), 646–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardol, M., De Jong, B. A., & Ward, C. D. (2002). On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation. Disability and Rehabilitation, 24, 970–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cardoso, R., Romero, M., Chan, F., Dutta, A., & Rahimi, M. (2007). Disparities in vocational services for Latino clients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). CDC vital signs—Hispanic health. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/pdf/2015-05-vitalsigns.pdf.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and developmental disability monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/ss/ss6503a1.htm.
  13. Charlton, J. (1998). Nothing about us without us: Disability oppression and empowerment. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Charlton, J. (2006). The dimensions of disability oppression: An overview. In L. J. Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (pp. 147–159). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Crisp, R. (2005). Key factors related to vocational outcome: Trends for six disability groups. Journal of Rehabilitation, 71(4), 30–37.Google Scholar
  16. Erickson, W., Lee, C., & von Schrader, S. (2014). 2013 Disability status report: United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Employment and Disability Institute.Google Scholar
  17. Escarce, J. J., & Kapur, K. (2006). Access to and quality of health care. In M. Tienda & F. Mitchell (Eds.), Hispanics and the future of America (pp. 410–446). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fawcett, S. B., White, G. W., Balcazar, F., Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Mathews, M. R., & Paine, A. (1994). A contextual-behavioral model of empowerment: Case studies involving people with disabilities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 471–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fetterman, D. M. (2015). Empowerment evaluation: Knowledge and tools for self-assessment, evaluation capacity building, and accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fine, M., & Asch, A. (1988). Women with disabilities: Essays in psychology, culture and politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum International.Google Scholar
  22. Gill, C. J., & Cross, W. E. (2010). Disability identity and racial-cultural identity development: Points of convergence, divergence, and interplay. In F. E. Balcazar, Y. Suarez-Balcazar, T. Taylor-Ritzler, & C. B. Keys (Eds.), Race, culture, & disability (pp. 33–52). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  23. Granados, G., Puwula, J., Berman, N., & Dowling, P. (2001). Health care for Latino children: Impact of child and parental birthplace on insurance status and access to health services. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1806–1820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grzywacz, J., Quandt, S., Marin, A., Summers, P., Lang, W., Mills, T., Arcury, T. (2012). Occupational injury and work organization among immigrant Latino residential construction workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55, 698–706.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hahn, H. (1993). The potential impact of disability studies on political science (as well as vice versa). Policy Studies Journal, 21, 740–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hammel, J., Jones, R., Smith, J., Sanford, J., Bodine, C., & Johnson, M. (2008). Environmental barriers and supports to the health, function, and participation of people with developmental and intellectual disabilities: Report from the state of the science in aging with developmental disabilities conference. Disability & Health, 1(3), 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hammel, J., Magasi, S., Heinemann, A., Whiteneck, G., Bogner, J., & Rodriguez, E. (2008). What does participation mean? An insider perspective from people with disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(19), 1445–1460.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280701625534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Heinemann, J. A., Kurenbach, B., & Quist, D. (2011). Molecular profiling—A tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs. Environment International, 37, 1285–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaiser Foundation Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. (2013). Health coverage by race and ethnicity: The potential impact on the affordable care act. Retrieved from http://kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/health-coverage-by-race-and-ethnicity-the-potential-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act/.
  30. Krahn, G. L., Hammond, L., & Turner, A. (2006). A cascade of disparities: Health and health care access for people with intellectual disabilities. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Review, 12(1), 70–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krause, J. S., & Terza, J. V. (2006). Injury and demographic factors predictive of disparities in earnings after spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(10), 1318–1326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2006.07.254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Langi, F. L., & Balcazar, F. E. (2017). Risk factors for failure to enter vocational rehabilitation services among individuals with disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 39(26), 2640–2647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lillie-Blanton, M., & Hudman, J. (2001). Untangling the web: Race/ethnicity, immigration, and the nation’s health. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1736–1739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ludwig-Beymer, P., Blankemeier, J., Casas-Byots, C., & Suarez-Balcazar, Y. (1996). Community assessment in a suburban Hispanic community: A description of method. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 8, 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Magaña, S., Li, H., Miranda, E., & Paradiso, R. (2015). Improving health behaviors of Latina mothers of youths and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59, 397–410.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Magaña, S., Lopez, K., Aguinaga, A., & Morton, H. (2013). Access to diagnosis and treatment services among Latino children with autism spectrum disorders. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 51, 141–153.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-51.3.141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Magaña, S., Lopez, K., & Machalicek, W. (2017). Parents taking action: A psycho-educational intervention for Latino parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Family Process, 56(1), 59–74.  https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Magaña, S., Parish, S., Morales, M., Li, H., & Fujiura, G. (2016). Racial and ethnic health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 54, 161–172.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-54.3.161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Magaña, S., Parish, S., & Son, E. (2015). Have racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of health care relationships changed for children with developmental disabilities and ASD? American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 120, 504–513.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-120.6.504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Magaña, S., & Smith, M. J. (2006). Psychological distress and well-being of Latina and non-Latina white mothers of youth and adults with an autism spectrum disorder: Cultural attitudes towards co-residence status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 346–357.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.76.3.346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Magaña, S., & Smith, M. (2008). Health behaviors, service utilization, and access to care among older mothers of color who have children with developmental disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 267–280.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556(2008)46%5b267:HBSUAA%5d2.0.CO;2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Magasi, S., Hammel, J., Heinemann, A., Whiteneck, G., & Bogner, J. (2009). Participation: A comparative analysis of multiple rehabilitation stakeholders’ perspectives. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 41(11), 936–944.  https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-0450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Marin, G., Organista, P. B., & Chun, K. M. (2003). Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Markides, K. S., Stroup-Benham, C. A., Goodwin, J. S., Perkowski, L. C., Lichtenstein, M., & Ray, L. A. (1996). The effect of medical conditions on the functional limitations of Mexican-American elderly. Annals of Epidemiology, 6(5), 386–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marks, B., Sisirak, J., & Heller, T. (2010). Health matters: The exercise and nutrition health education curriculum for people with developmental disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  46. Montero, M. (2009). Methods for liberation: critical consciousness in action. In M. Montero & C. C. Sonn (Eds.), Psychology of liberation (pp. 73–92). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. National Council on Disability (2003). Outreach and people with disabilities from diverse cultures: A review of the literature. Retrieved from http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/advisory/cultural/cdi_litreview.html.
  48. Nelson, G., & Prilleltensky, I. (Eds.). (2005). Community psychology: In pursuit of liberation and wellbeing. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  49. Oberoi, A. K., Balcazar, F., Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Langi, F., & Lukyanova, V. (2015). Employment outcomes among African American and White women with disabilities: Examining the inequalities. Women, Gender and Families of Color, 3, 144–164.  https://doi.org/10.5406/womgenfamcol.3.2.0144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Office of Minority Health. (2017). Asthma and Hispanic Americans. Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=60.
  51. Oliver, M. (2013). The social model of disability: thirty years on. Disability & Society, 28(7), 1024–1026. http://dx.doi.org/10/1080/09687599.2013.818773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Orrenius, P. M., & Zavodny, M. (2009). Do immigrants work in riskier jobs? Demography, 46(3), 535–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Otiniano, A. D., Carroll-Scott, A., Toy, P., & Wallace, S. P. (2012). Supporting Latino communities’ natural helpers: A case study of promotoras in a research capacity building course. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health/Center for Minority Public Health, 14, 657–663.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-011-9519-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ouellette-Kuntz, H. (2005). Understanding health disparities and inequities faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 18(2), 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Parish, S., Magaña, S., Rose, R., Timberlake, M., & Swaine, J. (2012). Health care of Latino children with autism and other developmental disabilities: Quality of provider interaction mediates utilization. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117, 304–315.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-117.4.304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15(2), 121–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Raymond-Flesch, M., Siemons, R., Pourat, N., Jacobs, K., & Brindis, C. D. (2014). There is no help out there and if there is, it’s really hard to find”: A qualitative study of the health concerns and healthcare access of Latino “DREAMers”. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(3), 323–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.05.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Rhodes, S. D., Foley, K. L., Zometa, C. S., & Bloom, F. R. (2007). Lay health advisor interventions among Hispanics/Latinos: A qualitative systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 418–427.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.07.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sander, A. M., Pappadis, M. R., Clark, A. N., & Struchen, M. A. (2011). Perceptions of community integration in an ethnically diverse sample. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26(2), 158–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sears, J., Bowman, S., & Silverstein, B. (2012). Trends in the disproportionate burden of work-related traumatic injuries sustained by Latinos. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54, 1239–1245.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31825a34ed.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Strickland, B. B., Jones, J. R., Ghandour, R. M., Kogan, M. D., & Newacheck, P. W. (2011). The medical home: Health care access and impact for children and youth in the United States. Pediatrics, 127, 604–611.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-3555.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Balcazar, F. B., Taylor-Ritzler, T., Ali, A., & Hasnain, R. (2013). Race, poverty, and disability: A social justice dilemma. In B. J. Betancur & C. Herring (Eds.), Reinventing race, reinventing racism (pp. 351–367). Boston, MA: Brill.Google Scholar
  63. Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Balcazar, F., & Willis, C. (2012). Cultural considerations for MS rehabilitation. In M. Finlayson (Ed.), Multiple sclerosis rehabilitation: From impairment to participation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  64. Suarez-Balcazar, Y., & Cooper, M. B. (2005). Poverty. In G. Albrecht (Ed.), Encyclopedia of disability (Vol. 2, pp. 1281–1284). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Hoisington, M., Orozco, A. A., Garcia, C., Smith, K., Arias, D., Bonner, B. (2016). Benefits of a culturally tailored health promotion program for Latino youth with disabilities and their families. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(5), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2016.021949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Taylor-Ritzler, T., Balcazar, F. E., Suarez-Balcazar, Y., & Garcia-Iriarte, E. (2007). Conducting disability research with people from diverse ethnic groups: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 74(1), 4–11.Google Scholar
  67. Tejero-Hughes, M., Martinez Valle-Riestra, D., & Arguelles, M. E. (2008). The voices of Latino families raising children with special needs. Journal of Latinos and Education, 7(3), 241–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. U.S. Census Bureau, Brief Disability Status. (2012). Americans with disabilities: 2010. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p70-131.pdf.
  69. U.S. Census Bureau, Newsroom. (2013). Workers with a disability Less Likely to be employed, more likely to hold jobs with lower earnings. Census Bureau Reports, 14 March 2013. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2013/cb13-47.html.
  70. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2015). Employment and unemployment among youth summary. Retrieved from: www.bls.gov/news.release/youth.nr0.htm.
  71. Yee, S. (2011). Health and health care disparities among people with disabilities. Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund, 1–6.Google Scholar
  72. Zimmerman, M., & Eisman, A. (2016). Empowerment theory. In M. A. Bond, C. B. Keys, & I. Serrano-García (Eds.), APA handbook of community psychology (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4311524.aspx?tab=2.
  73. Zuckerman, K. E., Sinche, B., Mejia, A., Cobian, M., Becker, T., & Nicolaidis, C. (2014). Latino parents’ perspectives on barriers to autism diagnosis. Academic Pediatrics, 14, 301–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2013.12.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabricio E. Balcazar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sandra Magaña
    • 2
  • Yolanda Suarez-Balcazar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Disability and Human DevelopmentUniversity of Illinois-ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Steve Hicks School of Social WorkUniversity of Texas-AustinAustinUSA
  3. 3.Department of Occupational TherapyUniversity of Illinois-ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations