Approaches for Remediation of Sites Contaminated with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

  • Saranya Kuppusamy
  • Naga Raju Maddela
  • Mallavarapu Megharaj
  • Kadiyala Venkateswarlu


For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to clean-up the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs)-polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This attention led to the development of several physico-chemical, thermal, and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating TPHs-contaminated sites are dig and dump, soil washing, soil vapor extraction, incineration, thermal desorption, natural attenuation, landfarming, slurry bioreactors, composting, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, biopiling, bioventing, and phytoremediation. Integrating physico-chemical, thermal, and/or biological technologies is also practiced for better clean-up of TPHs-contaminated environments. Bioelectrochemical system, nanoremediation, electrokinetic remediation, genetic engineering, and ultrasound technology-assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate TPHs-polluted sites currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is not available and is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. Hence, this chapter presents a brief overview of all the traditional and newly emerging technologies for TPHs remediation.


Bioremediation of TPHs Ex situ technologies for TPHs In situ technologies for TPHs Nanoremediation Phytoremediation Risk-based remediation 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Environmental StudiesAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y Departamento de investigaciónUniversidad Técnica de ManabíPortoviejoEcuador
  3. 3.Global Centre for Environmental RemediationThe University of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia
  4. 4.NelloreIndia

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