Advertisement

Fate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Environment

  • Saranya Kuppusamy
  • Naga Raju Maddela
  • Mallavarapu Megharaj
  • Kadiyala Venkateswarlu
Chapter

Abstract

An oil spill is the release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) into the environment, especially the terrestrial (land) and aquatic ecosystems, due to human activities, and is a form of pollution. When the oil is spilled, it normally spreads out and moves in and on the surfaces of spilled sites while undergoing several physico-chemical changes. These processes are collectively termed as “weathering” or “oil weathering processes” (OWP) and determine the “fate of the oil.” The speed and relative importance of the processes depend on several factors such as (i) the quantity of spill, (ii) the oil’s initial physical (surface tension, specific gravity, and viscosity) and chemical characteristics, (iii) existing environmental conditions, and (iv) whether the oil remains at or runs off from the spilled site. In land-oil spill, there is a high-level possibility of leaching of spilled oil into groundwater or entering waterways (i.e., rivers and streams) as runoff and to return the soil to productive use as quickly as possible. Various hydrocarbon fractions of spilled oil in marine environments are selectively subjected to evaporation (very volatile fractions), oxidation, and dissolution into the water table (dissolved oxygen combines with oil to produce water-soluble compounds), spreading, accumulation as persistent residues, and biodegradation by microorganisms. In certain cases, the contaminated area can be flooded, wherein oil floats or moves to water surface since some of the fractions of crude oil are lighter (i.e., propane and benzene) than water. The present chapter emphasizes the fate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in various environments immediately after the spill.

Keywords

Aquatic fate of TPHs Biodegradation of TPHs PAHs Terrestrial fate of TPHs Weathering of TPHs 

References

  1. Abbasian F, Lockington R, Mallavarapu M, Naidu R (2015) A comprehensive review of aliphatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 176:670–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbasian F, Lockington R, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2016) A review on the genetics of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 178:224–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Afshar-Mohajer N, Li C, Rule AM, Katz J, Koehler K (2018) A laboratory study of particulate and gaseous emissions from crude oil and crude oil-dispersant contaminated seawater due to breaking waves. Atmos Environ 179:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandara UC, Yapa PD, Xie H (2011) Fate and transport of oil in sediment laden marine waters. J Hydro-Environ Res 5:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brassington KJ, Hough RL, Paton GI, Semple KT, Risdon GC, Crossley J, Hay I, Askari K, Pollard SJT (2007) Weathered hydrocarbon wastes: a risk management primer. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 37:199–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ChaIneau CH, Morel JL, Oudot J (1995) Microbial degradation in soil microcosms of fuel oil hydrocarbons from drilling cuttings. Environ Sci Technol 29:1615–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Gouw JA, Middlebrook AM, Warneke C, Ahmadov R, Atlas EL, Bahreini R, Blake DR, Brock CA, Brioude J, Fahey DW, Fehsenfeld FC, Holloway JS, Le Henaff M, Lueb RA, McKeen SA, Meagher JF, Murphy DM, Paris C, Parrish DD, Perring AE, Pollack IB, Ravishankara AR, Robinson AL, Ryerson TB, Schwarz JP, Spackman JR, Srinivasan A, Watts LA (2011) Organic aerosol formation downwind from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Science 331:1295–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duan L, Palanisami T, Liu Y, Dong M, Mallavarapu M, Kuchel T, Semple KT, Naidu R (2014) Effects of ageing and soil properties on the oral bioavailability of benzo(a)pyrene using a swine model. Environ Int 70:192–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duan L, Naidu R, Liu L, Palanisami T, Dong Z, Megharaj M, Semple KT (2015) Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils. J Hazard Mater 296:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Faksness LG, Daling P, Altin D, Dolva H, Fosbæk B, Bergstrøm R (2015) Relative bioavailability and toxicity of fuel oils leaking from World War II shipwrecks. Mar Pollut Bull 94:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guiliano M, Boukir A, Doumenq P, Mille G, Crampon C, Badens E, Charbit G (2000) Supercritical fluid extraction of Bal 150 crude oil asphaltenes. Energy Fuel 14:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huesemann MH, Hausmann TS, Fortman TJ (2004) Does bioavailability limit biodegradation? A comparison of hydrocarbon biodegradation and desorption rates in aged soils. Biodegradation 15:261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuppusamy S, Thavamani P, Singh S, Naidu R, Megharaj M (2017) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation potential, surfactant production, metal resistance and enzymatic activity of two novel cellulose-degrading bacteria isolated from koala faeces. Environ Earth Sci 76:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee WJ, Wang YF, Lin TC, Chen YY, Lin WC, Ku CC, Cheng JT (1995) PAH characteristics in the ambient air of traffic-source. Sci Total Environ 159:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lin C, Gan L, Chen Z, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2014) Biodegradation of naphthalene using a functional biomaterial based on immobilised Bacillus fusiformis. Biochem Eng J 90:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maddela NR, Scalvenzi L, Pérez M, Montero C, Gooty JM (2015a) Efficiency of indigenous filamentous fungi for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in medium and soil: laboratory study from Ecuador. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 95:385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maddela NR, Reyes JJM, Viafara D, Gooty JM (2015b) Biosorption of copper (II) by microorganisms isolated from crude oil contaminated soil. Soil Sedim Contam 24:898–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maddela NR, Burgos R, Venkateswarlu K, Banganegiri M, Carrión AR (2016) Removal of crude oil from soil by using novel microorganisms of Ecuador soils: solid and slurry phase methods. Int Biodeter Biodegr 108:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maddela NR, Rodriguez L, Sanaguano SH, Ricardo EBM, Venkateswarlu K, Scalvenzi L (2017a) Biodegradation of diesel, crude oil and spent lubricating oil by soil isolates of Bacillus spp. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 98:698–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maddela NR, Scalvenzi L, Venkateswarlu K (2017b) Microbial degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in crude oil: a field-scale study at the low-land rainforest of Ecuador. Environ Technol 38:2543–2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahajan TB, Elsila JE, Deamer DW, Zare RN (2003) Formation of carbon-carbon bonds in the photochemical alkylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Orig Life Evol Biosph 33:17–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Michel J, Csulak F, French D, Sperduto M (1997) Natural resource impacts from the North Cape oil spill. Int Oil Spill Conf Proc 1997:841–850. https://ioscproceedings.org/doi/abs/10.7901/2169-3358-1997-1-841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mishra AK, Kumar GS (2015) Weathering of oil spill: modeling and analysis. Aquat Procedia 4:435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. NAP (The National Academies Press) (2003) Chapter 4: Behavior and fate of oil. In: Oil in the sea III: inputs, fates, and effects, pp 88–118. https://www.nap.edu/read/10388/chapter/5#97. Accessed April 2019Google Scholar
  25. NRC (National Research Council) (1999) Spills of nonfloating oils: risk and response. Committee on Marine Transportation of Heavy Oils. The National Academies, Washington, D.C., 75 pGoogle Scholar
  26. Oil in the Sea III (2003) Inputs, fates, and effects. Chapter 4: Behavior and fate of oil. The National Academy Press, p 106. https://www.nap.edu/read/10388/chapter/5#105. Accessed 29 March 2019
  27. Pierre N (1980) The oil spill age: fate and effects of oil in the marine environment. Ambio 9:297–302Google Scholar
  28. Pollard SJT, Hrudey SE, Fedorak PM (1994) Bioremediation of petroleum- and creosote-contaminated soils: a review of constraints. Waste Manag Res 12:173–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ramadass K, Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R (2016) Soil bacterial strains with heavy metal resistance and high potential in degrading diesel oil and n-alkanes. Int J Environ Sci Technol 13:2863–2874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reddy CM, Arey JS, Seewald JS, Sylva SP, Lemkau KL, Nelson RK, Carmichael CA, McIntyre CP, Fenwick J, Ventura GT, Van Mooy BAS, Camilli R (2012) Composition and fate of gas and oil released to the water column during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:20229–20234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Robinson AL, Donahue NM, Shrivastava MK, Weitkamp EA, Sage AM, Grieshop AP, Lane TE, Pierce JR, Pandis SN (2007) Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315:1259–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ryerson TB, Aikin KC, Angevine WM, Atlas EL, Blake DR, Brock CA, Fehsenfeld FC, Gao RS, Gouw JA, Fahey DW, Holloway JS, Lack DA, Lueb RA, Meinardi S, Middlebrook AM, Murphy DM, Neuman JA, Nowak JB, Parrish DD, Peischl J, Perring AE, Pollack IB, Ravishankara AR, Roberts JM, Schwarz JP, Spackman JR, Stark H, Warneke C, Watts LA (2011) Atmospheric emissions from the Deepwater Horizon spill constrain air-water partitioning, hydrocarbon fate, and leak rate. Geophys Res Lett 38:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ryerson TB, Camilli R, Kessler JD, Kujawinski EB, Reddy CM, Valentine DL, Atlas E, Blake DR, de Gouw J, Meinardi S, Parrish DD, Peischl J, Seewald JS, Warneke C (2012) Chemical data quantify Deepwater Horizon hydrocarbon flow rate and environmental distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:20246–20253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sammarco PW, Kolian SR, Warby RAF, Bouldin JL, Subra WA, Porter SA (2013) Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico. Mar Pollut Bull 73:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Semple KT, Reid BJ, Fermor TR (2001) Impact of composting strategies on the treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. Environ Pollut 112:269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Seo JS, Keum YS, Li Q (2009) Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sheu HL, Lee WJ, Lin SJ, Fang GC, Chang HC, You WC (1997) Particle-bound PAH content in ambient air. Environ Pollut 96:369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sivaram AK, Logeshwaran P, Lockington R, Naidu R, Megharaj M (2019) Low molecular weight organic acids enhance the high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by bacteria. Chemosphere 222:132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Subashchandrabose SR, Logeshwaran P, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R, Megharaj M (2017) Pyrene degradation by Chlorella sp. MM3 in liquid medium and soil slurry: possible role of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase in pyrene degradation. Algal Res 23:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Subashchandrabose SR, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R, Megharaj M (2019a) Biodegradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9: overexpression of amidohydrolase induced by pyrene and BaP. Sci Total Environ 651:813–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Subashchandrabose SR, Venkateswarlu K, Venkidusamy K, Palanisami T, Naidu R, Megharaj M (2019b) Bioremediation of soil long-term contaminated with PAHs by algal–bacterial synergy of Chlorella sp. MM3 and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9 in slurry phase. Sci Total Environ 659:724–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Swan JM, Neff JM (1994) Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia: the finding of an independent scientific review. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association Limited, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  43. Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2012a) Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium. Biodegradation 23:823–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2012b) Multivariate analysis of mixed contaminants (PAHs and heavy metals) at manufactured gas plant site soil. Environ Monit Assess 184:3875–3885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2015) Metal tolerant PAH degrading bacteria: development of suitable test medium and effect of cadmium and its availability on PAH biodegradation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:8957–8968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tjessem K, Aaberg A (1983) Photochemical transformation and degradation of petroleum residues in the marine environment. Chemosphere 12:1373–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Venkidusamy K, Megharaj M (2016a) Identification of electrode respiring, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MK2 highlights the untapped potential for environmental bioremediation. Front Microbiol 7:1965Google Scholar
  48. Venkidusamy K, Megharaj M (2016b) A novel electrophototrophic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain RP2, exhibits hydrocarbonoclastic potential in anaerobic environments. Front Microbiol 7:1071Google Scholar
  49. Venkidusamy K, Megharaj M, Marzorati M, Lockington R, Naidu R (2016) Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes. Sci Total Environ 539:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xie H, Yapa PD, Nakata K (2007) Modeling emulsification after an oil spill in the sea. J Mar Res 68:489–506Google Scholar
  51. Yu B, Jin X, Kuang Y, Megharaj M, Naidu R, Chen Z (2015) An integrated biodegradation and nano-oxidation used for the remediation of naphthalene from aqueous solution. Chemosphere 141:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Environmental StudiesAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y Departamento de investigaciónUniversidad Técnica de ManabíPortoviejoEcuador
  3. 3.Global Centre for Environmental RemediationThe University of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia
  4. 4.NelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations