Methodologies for Analysis and Identification of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

  • Saranya Kuppusamy
  • Naga Raju Maddela
  • Mallavarapu Megharaj
  • Kadiyala Venkateswarlu


Analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from impacted media involves the collection and preservation of samples followed by extraction, concentration, and clean-up of the sample extract as well as detection and quantification of the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs). Extraction involves the use of methods such as continuous liquid-liquid extraction, purge and trap extraction, headspace analysis, separatory funnel extraction, solid-phase extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, mechanical shaking, microextraction, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, or supercritical fluid extraction, while the concentration of the extract is executed using the trapping method, Snyder column, Kuderna-Danish concentrator, or nitrogen evaporator. Extract clean-up before analysis is done directly using solid-phase cartridges or indirectly using alumina clean-up, silica gel clean-up, gel permeation clean-up, acid-base partition, and desulfurization technique. The measurement of TPHs in impacted media is most frequently done using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with a flame ionization detector, photoionization detector, or mass spectrometric detection. Other methods of final TPHs determination include infrared spectroscopy, gravimetry, ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy, immunoassay, and high-performance liquid chromatography. More importantly, the profile of unresolved complex hydrocarbon mixtures in a TPH-polluted sample is amply characterized and resolved using two-dimensional GC. Of all the analytical methods, ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy, gravimetry, and GC are more frequently used to determine TPHs levels in the environment.


Identification of TPHs Techniques for PHs analysis Techniques for PAHs analysis Techniques for TPHs analysis 


  1. Abdullah AR, Woon WC, Bakar RA (1996) Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 57:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adeniji AO, Okoh OO, Okoh AI (2017) Analytical methods for the determination of the distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the water and sediment of aquatic systems: a review. J Chem 2017:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adewuyi GO, Olowu RA (2012) Assessment of oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons and some heavy metals in surface and groundwater within the vicinity of NNPC Oil Depot in Apata, Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Int J Res Rev Appl Sci 13:166–174Google Scholar
  4. Adewuyi GO, Etchie OT, Ademoyegun OT (2011) Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in surface water and sediment of Ubeji River, Warri, Nigeria. Bioremed Biodiv Bioavail 5:46–51Google Scholar
  5. Alinnor IJ, Nwachukwu MA (2013) Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbon in soil and groundwater samples in some communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol 5:292–297Google Scholar
  6. Alinnor IJ, Ogukwe CE, Nwagbo NC (2014) Characteristic level of total petroleum hydrocarbon in soil and groundwater of oil impacted area in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. J Environ Earth Sci 4:188–194Google Scholar
  7. Allicotti G, Borras E, Pinilla C (2003) A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) increases the sensitivity of antigen-driven cytokine detection. J Immunoassay Immunochem 24:345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Saad HT, Karem DS, Kadhim HA (2017) Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil of west Qurna-2 oil field Southern Iraq. Int J Marine Sci 7:51–58Google Scholar
  9. Andreolli M, Albertarelli N, Lampis S, Brignoli P, Khoei NS, Vallini G (2016) Bioremediation of diesel contamination at an underground storage tank site: A spatial analysis of the microbial community. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anegbe B, Okuo JM, Okieimen FE (2016) Impact of inorganic and organic pollutants in soil from the vicinity of mechanic workshops in Benin City. Int J Chem Stud 4:106–112Google Scholar
  11. ATSDR (1999) Toxicological profile for total petroleum hydrocarbon. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  12. BCME (2001) Aliphatic/aromatic separation of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons in solids or water by silica gel fractionation, Analytical method 7 for contaminated sites, Version 2.1, British Columbia Ministry of Environment (BCME), British Columbia, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  13. Boehm PD, Fiest DL (1982) Subsurface distributions of petroleum from an offshore well blowout. Environ Sci Technol 16:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cai SS, Syage JA, Hanold KA, Balogh MP (2009) Ultra performance liquid chromatography – atmospheric pressure photoionization – tandem mass spectrometry for high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of US Environmental Protection Agency 16 priority pollutants polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Anal Chem 81:2123–2128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Celino JJ, Oliveira OMCD, Hadlich GM, Queiroz AFDS, Garcia KS (2008) Assessment of contamination by trace metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. Rev Bras Geoci 38:753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cortes JE, Suspes A, Roa S, González C, Castro HE (2012) Total petroleum hydrocarbons by gas chromatography in Colombian waters and soils. Am J Environ Sci 8:396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Douglas RK, Nawar S, Alamar MC, Coulon F, Mouazen AM (2017) Almost 25 years of chromatographic and spectroscopic analytical method development for petroleum hydrocarbons analysis in soil and sediment: State-of-the-art, progress and trends. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 47:1497–1527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH (2003) Determination of semivolatile and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in SRM 1649a and PM 2.5 samples by HPLC-fluorescence. Polycycl Aromat Compd 23:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. El Samra MI, Emara HI, Shunbo F (1986) Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon in the northwestern Arabian Gulf. Mar Pollut Bull 17:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Falkova M, Vakh C, Shishov A, Zubakina E, Moskvin A, Moskvin L, Bulatov A (2016) Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis. Talanta 148:661–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fan CY, Krishnamurthy S, Chen CT (1994) A critical review of analytical approaches for petroleum contaminated soil. In: Hoddinott K, O’Shay T (eds) Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents, vol 1221. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, pp 75–88Google Scholar
  22. Farrington JW, Quinn JG (2015) Unresolved complex mixture (UCM): A brief history of the term and moving beyond it. Mar Pollut Bull 96:29–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Farrington JW, Wakeham SG, Livramento JB, Tripp BW, Teal JM (1986) Aromatic hydrocarbons in New York Bight polychaetes: Ultraviolet fluorescence analyses and gas chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Environ Sci Technol 20:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Faustorilla MV, Chen Z, Dharmarajan R, Naidu R (2017) Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in australian groundwater through the improvised gas chromatography–flame ionization detection technique. J Chromatogr Sci 55:775–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fowler SW, Readman JW, Oregioni B, Villeneuve JP, McKay K (1993) Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in nearshore Gulf sediments and biota before and after the 1991 war: an assessment of temporal and spatial trends. Mar Pollut Bull 27:171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frysinger GS, Gaines RB, Xu L, Reddy CM (2003) Resolving the unresolved complex mixture in petroleum-contaminated sediments. Environ Sci Technol 37:1653–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garali AB, Ouakad M, Gueddari M (2010) Contamination of superficial sediments by heavy metals and iron in the Bizerte lagoon, northern Tunisia. Arab J Geosci 1:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gough MA, Rowland SJ (1990) Characterization of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons in petroleum. Nature 344:648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guerra-Garcia JM, Garcia-Gomez JC (2005) Assessing pollution levels in sediments of a harbour with two opposing entrances. J Environ Manage 77:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Halasz A, Bayona JM, Hawari J (2002) Sample preparation techniques for soil analysis. Comp Anal Chem 37:895–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herzfelder ER, Golledge RW (2004) Method for the determination of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPH). Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Boston, 39 pGoogle Scholar
  32. Hubálek T, Vosáhlová S, Matějů V, Kováčová N, Novotný Č (2007) Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Istrate I, Cocârță D, Wu Z, Stoian M (2018) Minimizing the health risks from hydrocarbon contaminated soils by using electric field-based treatment for soil remediation. Sustainability 10:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Iturbe R, Flores C, Castro A, Torres LG (2007) Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico. Environ Monit Assess 133:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jahantab E, Jafari M, Motesharezadeh B, Tavili A, Zargham N (2018) Remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils using Stipagrostis plumosa, Calotropis procera L. and Medicago sativa under different organic amendment treatments. Ecopersia 6:101–109Google Scholar
  36. Jeon CS, Yang JS, Kim KJ, Baek K (2010) Electrokinetic removal of petroleum hydrocarbon from residual clayey soil following a washing process. Clean Soil Air Water 38:189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kayali-Sayadi MN, Rubio-Barroso S, Diaz-Diaz CA, Polo-Díez LM (2000) Rapid determination of PAHs in soil samples by HPLC with fluorimetric detection following sonication extraction. Fresenius J Anal Chem 368:697–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. KDHE (2015) Method for the Determination of Mid-Range Hydrocarbons (MRH) and High-Range Hydrocarbons (HRH), Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), Revision 1.0, KansasGoogle Scholar
  39. Kepkay PE, Bugden JBC, Lee K, Stoffyn-Egli P (2002) Application of ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor oil–mineral aggregate formation. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Khudur LS, Gleeson DB, Ryan MH, Shahsavari E, Haleyur N, Nugegoda D, Ball AS (2018) Implications of co-contamination with aged heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons on natural attenuation and ecotoxicity in Australian soils. Environ Pollut 243:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kidwell DA, Riggs LA (2004) Comparing two analytical methods: minimal standards in forensic toxicology derived from information theory. Forensic Sci Int 145:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Korshenko A, Matveichuk I, Plotnikova T, Luchkov V (2003) Marine waters quality on hydrochemical parameters. Annual report, Hydrometeoizdat, St. PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  43. Kuppusamy S, Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2016) Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by novel bacterial consortia tolerant to diverse physical settings – assessments in liquid-and slurry-phase systems. Int Biodeter Biodegr 108:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lambert P, Fingas M, Goldthorp M (2001) An evaluation of field total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) systems. J Hazard Mater 83:65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lesnik B (2006) Immunoassay techniques in environmental analyses. In: Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry: applications, theory and instrumentation. Wiley, New York. Scholar
  46. Li Q, Wu Z, Chu B, Zhang N, Cai S, Fang J (2007) Heavy metals in coastal wetland sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, China. Environ Pollut 149:158–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li Y, Zhao Y, Peng S, Zhou Q, Ma LQ (2010) Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater of Bohai Bay, China from 1996 to 2005. Mar Pollut Bull 60:238–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu Q, Tang J, Gao K, Gurav R, Giesy JP (2017) Aerobic degradation of crude oil by microorganisms in soils from four geographic regions of China. Sci Rep 7:14856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maddela NR, Burgos R, Venkateswarlu K, Carrion AR, Bangeppagari M (2016) Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil in solid and slurry phase by mixed soil microorganisms isolated from Ecuadorian oil fields. Int Biodeter Biodegr 108:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Makombe N, Gwisai RD (2018) Soil remediation practices for hydrocarbon and heavy metal reclamation in mining polluted soils. Sci World J. 2018: Article ID 5130430, 7 pGoogle Scholar
  51. Maktoof AA, ALKhafaji BY, Al-Janabi ZZ (2014) Evaluation of total hydrocarbons levels and traces metals in water and sediment from main outfall drain in Al-Nassiriya City/Southern Iraq. Nat Resour 5:795–803Google Scholar
  52. Mao D, Van De Weghe H, Lookman R, Vanermen G, De Brucker N, Diels L (2009) Resolving the unresolved complex mixture in motor oils using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Fuel 88:312–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Massoud MS, Al-Abdali F, Al-Ghadban AN, AlSarawi M (1996) Bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf—II: TPH and TOC contents as indicators of oil pollution and implications for the effect and fate of the Kuwait oil slick. Environ Pollut 93:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Massoud MS, Al-Abdali F, Al-Ghadban AN (1998) The status of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf by the end of 1993. Environ Int 24:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mills MA, McDonald TJ, Bonner JS, Simon MA, Autenrieth RL (1999) Method for quantifying the fate of petroleum in the environment. Chemosphere 39:2563–2582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mosaed HP, Sobhanardakani S, Merrikhpour H, Farmany A, Cheraghi M, Ashorlo S (2015) The effect of urban fuel stations on soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons. Iran J Toxicol 9:1378–1381Google Scholar
  57. Muijs B, Jonker MT (2009) Evaluation of clean-up agents for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in biota and sediments. J Chromat A 1216:5182–5189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muthukumar A, Idayachandiran G, Kumaresan S, Kumar TA, Balasubramanian T (2013) Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in sediments of three different ecosystems from Southeast Coast of India. Int J Pharm Biol Archiv 4:543–549Google Scholar
  59. Mzoughi N, Dachraoui M, Villeneuve JP (2005) Evaluation of aromatic hydrocarbons by spectrofluorometry in marine sediments and biological matrix: What reference should be considered? C R Chim 8:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nadim F, Liu S, Hoag GE, Chen J, Carley RJ, Zack P (2002) A comparison of spectrophotometric and gas chromatographic measurements of heavy petroleum products in soil samples. Water Air Soil Pollut 134:97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Okop IJ, Ekpo SC (2012) Determination of total hydrocarbon content in soil after petroleum spillage. In: Proceedings of the world congress on engineering, July 4–6, London, UK, Newswood Limited, Hong Kong, pp 1722–1726Google Scholar
  62. Okparanma RN, Mouazen AM (2013) Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils: a review of spectroscopic and nonspectroscopic techniques. Appl Spec Rev 48:458–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ong RC, Marriott PJ (2002) A review of basic concepts in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 40:276–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Patnaik P (2010) Handbook of environmental analysis: chemical pollutants in air, water, soil, and solid wastes, 3rd edn. CRC Press Online, Boca Raton, FloridaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Peng X, Zhang G, Mai B, Hu J, Li K, Wang Z (2005) Tracing anthropogenic contamination in the Pearl River estuarine and marine environment of South China Sea using sterols and other organic molecular markers. Mar Pollut Bull 50:856–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pikovskii YI, Korotkov LA, Smirnova MA, Kovach RG (2017) Laboratory analytical methods for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a review). Eurasian Soil Sci 50:1125–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rauckyte T, Żak S, Pawlak Z, Oloyede A (2010) Determination of oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile aromatic compounds in soil and sediment samples. J Environ Eng Landscape Manage 18:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reddy CM, Quinn JG (1999) GC-MS analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater samples after the North Cape oil spill. Mar Pollut Bull 38:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Richter BE (2000) Extraction of hydrocarbon contamination from soils using accelerated solvent extraction. J Chromat A 874:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rozas LP, Minello TJ, Henry CB (2000) An assessment of potential oil spill damage to salt marsh habitats and fishery resources in Galveston Bay, Texas. Mar Pollut Bull 40:1148–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rudzinski WE, Aminabhavi TM (2000) A review on extraction and identification of crude oil and related products using supercritical fluid technology. Energy Fuel 14:464–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Saari E (2009) Towards minimizing measurement uncertainty in total petroleum hydrocarbon determination by GC-FID. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, Oulu University Press, Oulu, pp 19–20Google Scholar
  73. Saari E, Perämäki P, Jalonen J (2007) Effect of sample matrix on the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection. Microchem J 87:113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Saari E, Perämäki P, Jalonen J (2008) Evaluating the impact of extraction and clean-up parameters on the yield of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Anal Bioanal Chem 392:1231–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saari E, Perämäki P, Jalonen J (2010) Evaluating the impact of GC operating settings on GC–FID performance for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) determination. Microchem J 94:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sadler R, Connell D (2003) Analytical methods for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. In: Proceedings of the fifth national workshop on the assessment of site contamination. National Environmental Protection Council-Environmental Protection and Heritage Council, Adelaide, pp 133–150Google Scholar
  77. Sammarco PW, Kolian SR, Warby RA, Bouldin JL, Subra WA, Porter SA (2013) Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico. Mar Pollut Bull 73:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sanches FPJ, Böhm EM, Böhm GM, Montenegro GO, Silveira LA, Betemps GR (2017) Determination of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff in sediments of Sao Gonçalo Channel (Pelotas–RS, Brazil). Mar Pollut Bull 114:1088–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Santschi PH, Presley BJ, Wade TL, Garcia-Romero B, Baskaran M (2001) Historical contamination of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and heavy metals in Mississippi river Delta, Galveston bay and Tampa bay sediment cores. Mar Environ Res 52:51–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scarlett AG, Despaigne-Diaz AI, Wilde SA, Grice K (2019) An examination by GC× GC-TOFMS of organic molecules present in highly degraded oils emerging from Caribbean terrestrial seeps of Cretaceous age. Geosci Front 10:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sneddon J, Masuram S, Richert JC (2007) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-basic principles, instrumentation and selected applications for detection of organic compounds. Anal Lett 40:1003–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Snousy MG, Zawrah MF, Rashad AM, Ebiad MA, El-Sayed E, Tantawy MA (2015) HPLC evaluation of PAHs polluted soil in coastal petroleum refinery site Northwestern Suez Gulf, Egypt. Res J Environ Toxicol 9:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. SOGRLI (2014) Environmental monitoring post-drill survey report. Shemen Oil and Gas Resources Israel (SOGRLI), Stuart, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  84. Speight JG (2005) Lange’s handbook of chemistry, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  85. Stenstrom MK, Fam S, Silverman GS (1986) Analytical methods for quantitative and qualitative determination of hydrocarbons and oil and grease in water and wastewater. Environ Technol Lett 7:625–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Strother T, Lowry S, Bravo B (2013) Measurement of dispersed oil in water using an infrared analysis method, Application note 52439. Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc, Waltham, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  87. Subashchandrabose SR, Krishnan K, Gratton E, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2014) Potential of fluorescence imaging techniques to monitor mutagenic PAH uptake by microalga. Environ Sci Technol 48:9152–9160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Subashchandrabose SR, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R, Megharaj M (2019) Biodegradation of high-molecular weight PAHs by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9: Overexpression of amidohydrolase induced by pyrene and BaP. Sci Total Environ 651:813–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Suratman S (2013) Distribution of total petrogenic hydrocarbon in Dungun River basin, Malaysia. Orien J Chem 29:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Suratman S, Tahir NM, Latif MT (2012) A preliminary study of total petrogenic hydrocarbon distribution in setiu wetland, southern South China Sea (Malaysia). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:755–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tanacredi JT (1977) Petroleum hydrocarbons from effluents: detection in marine environment. J Water Pollut Control Feder 49:216–226Google Scholar
  92. Tran TC, Logan GA, Grosjean E, Ryan D, Marriott PJ (2010) Use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the characterization of biodegradation and unresolved complex mixtures in petroleum. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6468–6484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. US EPA (2003) Method 8015D: non-halogenated organics using GC/FID, Revision 4, United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  94. Van Dam RA, Camilleri C, Turley C (1998) Preliminary assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment at Yellow Water, Kakadu National Park. Internal Report 283, Department of the Environment and Energy, ParkesGoogle Scholar
  95. Van De Weghe H, Vanermen G, Gemoets J, Lookman R, Bertels D (2006) Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the assessment of oil contaminated soils. J Chromat A 1137:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vane CH, Chenery SR, Harrison I, Kim AW, Moss-Hayes V, Jones DG (2011) Chemical signatures of the anthropocene in the Clyde estuary, UK: sediment-hosted Pb, 207/206Pb, total petroleum hydrocarbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl pollution records. Philos Trans Royal Soc A 369:1085–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ventura GT, Raghuraman B, Nelson RK, Mullins OC, Reddy CM (2010) Compound class oil fingerprinting techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC× GC). Org Geochem 41:1026–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Villalobos M, Avila-Forcada AP, Gutierrez-Ruiz ME (2008) An improved gravimetric method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 194:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang Z, Fingas M (1997) Developments in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in oils, petroleum products and oil-spill-related environmental samples by gas chromatography. J Chromat A 774:51–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang Z, Li K, Fingas M, Sigouin L, Menard L (2002) Characterization and source identification of hydrocarbons in water samples using multiple analytical techniques. J Chromat A 971:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang H, Zhang S, Weng N, Wei X, Zhu G, Yu H, Ma W (2013) Insight of unresolved complex mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons in heavy oil via GC× GC-TOFMS analysis. Sci China Chem 56:262–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wattayakorn G, Rungsupa S (2012) Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Koh Sichang-Sriracha, Thailand. Coast Marine Sci 35:122–128Google Scholar
  103. Weisman W (1998) Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental media. Amherst Scientific Publishers, Amherst, Massachusetts, pp 2–50Google Scholar
  104. Wongnapapan P, Wattayakorn G, Snidvongs A (1999) Petroleum hydrocarbon in seawater and some sediments of the South China Sea, Area I: Gulf of Thailand and East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In: Proceedings of the 1st technical seminar on marine fishery resources survey in the South China Sea, pp 105–110Google Scholar
  105. WSDE (1997) Analytical methods for petroleum hydrocarbons, Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE), OlympiaGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhou R, Qin X, Peng S, Deng S (2014) Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk. Mar Pollut Bull 83:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zougagh M, Valcárcel M, Rıos A (2004) Supercritical fluid extraction: a critical review of its analytical usefulness. Trends Anal Chem 23:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Environmental StudiesAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y Departamento de investigaciónUniversidad Técnica de ManabíPortoviejoEcuador
  3. 3.Global Centre for Environmental RemediationThe University of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia
  4. 4.NelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations