Advertisement

Sexual Health

  • Carl G. StreedJr.Email author
  • Ivy H. Gardner
  • Kara Malone
  • Brent C. Monseur
Chapter

Abstract

There is a tendency to reduce all LGBTQ health to issues of sexual health, but the well-being of LGBTQ people goes far beyond sexual health. Conversely, sexual health is not an issue specific to LGBTQ populations; it is equally important to LGBTQ individuals as others. Although certain sexual experiences, behaviors, and risks are more commonly associated with LGBTQ populations, no experience is unique or universal to the LGBTQ population. Sexual health is an integral part of all individuals’ general health and well-being regardless of sexual orientation, sexual behavior, or gender identity.

Keywords

Sexual health LGBT health Safer sex Sexually transmitted infections HIV/AIDS Men who have sex with men Women who have sex with women 

Sources

  1. Ahdoot A, Kotler DP, Suh JS, Kutler C, Flamholz R. Lymphogranuloma venereum in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in New York City. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40(5):385–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Addressing health risks of noncoital sexual activity. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(6):1378–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson JS, Hoy J, Hillman R, Barnden M, Eu B, McKenzie A, Gittleson C. A randomized, placebo-controlled dose-escalation study to determine the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an HPV-16 therapeutic vaccine in HIV-positive participants with oncogenic HPV infection of the anus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52(3):371–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bevier PJ, Chiasson MA, Heffernan RT, Castro KG. Women at a sexually transmitted disease clinic who reported same-sex contact: their HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors. Am J Public Health. 1995;85(10):1366–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Blackwell CW. Men who have sex with men and recruit bareback sex partners on the Internet: implications for STI and HIV prevention and client education. Am J Mens Health. 2008;2(4):306–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaxhult A, Samuelson A, Ask R, Hökeberg I. Limited spread of hepatitis C among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Stockholm, Sweden. Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25(7):493–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Borg ML, Modi A, Tostmann A, Gobin M, Cartwright J, Quigley C, et al. Ongoing outbreak of Shigella flexneri serotype 3a in men who have sex with men in England and Wales, data from 2009-2011. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(13):20137.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradshaw D, Matthews G, Danta M. Sexually transmitted hepatitis C infection: the new epidemic in MSM? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26(1):66–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown B, Davtyan M, Galea J, Chow E, Leon S, Klausner JD. The role of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus acquisition in men who have sex with men: a review of the literature. Viruses. 2012;4(12):3851–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Caceres CF, Konda K, Segura ER, Lyerla R. Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimates. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84(Suppl 1):i49–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Carter JW Jr, Hart-Cooper GD, Butler MO, Workowski KA, Hoover KW. Provider barriers prevent recommended sexually transmitted disease screening of HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2014;41(2):137–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2010. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2011.Google Scholar
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2012. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2013.Google Scholar
  14. Chin-Hong PV, Husnik M, Cranston RD, Colfax G, Buchbinder S, Da Costa M, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection is associated with HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2009;23(9):1135–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Ciesielski CA. Sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men: an epidemiologic review. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2003;5(2):145–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen J, Lo YR, Caceres CF, Klausner JD. WHO guidelines for HIV/STI prevention and care among MSM and transgender people: implications for policy and practice. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(7):536–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Coleman E. What is sexual health? Articulating a sexual health approach to HIV prevention for men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(Suppl 1):S18–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. Health care needs of gay men and lesbians in the United States. JAMA. 1996;275(17):1354–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cox P, McNair R. Risk reduction as an accepted framework for safer-sex promotion among women who have sex with women. Sex Health. 2009;6(1):15–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cranston RD, Murphy R, Weiss RE, Da Costa M, Palefsky J, Shoptaw S, Gorbach PM. Anal human papillomavirus infection in a street-based sample of drug-using HIV-positive men. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(3):195–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Dahlberg M, Nordberg M, Pieniowski E, Boström L, Sandblom G, Hallqvist-Everhov Å. Retained sex toys: an increasing and possibly preventable medical condition. Int J Color Dis. 2018;34(1):181–3.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00384-018-3125-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis TW, Goldstone SE. Sexually transmitted infections as a cause of proctitis in men who have sex with men. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52(3):507–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. de Vries HJ. Sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men. Clin Dermatol. 2014;32(2):181–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. de Vries H, Zingoni A, White J, Ross J, Kreuter A. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;25(7):465–74.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462413516100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dietz CA, Nyberg CR. Genital, oral, and anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with men. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2011;111(3 Suppl 2):S19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Douglas JM Jr, Peterman TA, Fenton KA. Syphilis among men who have sex with men: challenges to syphilis elimination in the United States. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32(10 Suppl):S80–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards A, Thin RN. Sexually transmitted diseases in lesbians. Int J STD AIDS. 1990;1(3):178–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Einhorn L, Polgar M. HIV-risk behavior among lesbians and bisexual women. AIDS Educ Prev. 1994;6(6):514–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Witte S, Wu E, Hunt T, Remien RH. Couple-based HIV prevention in the United States: advantages, gaps, and future directions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55(Suppl 2):S98–S101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Everett BG. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior. Arch Sex Behav. 2013;42(2):225–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9902-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Fenton KA. Time for change: rethinking and reframing sexual health in the United States. J Sex Med. 2012;7(Suppl 5):250–2.Google Scholar
  32. Fethers K, Marks C, Mindel A, Estcourt CS. Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviours in women who have sex with women. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(5):345–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Gao L, Zhou F, Li X, Yang Y, Ruan Y, Jin Q. Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China. PLoS One. 2012;5(12):e15256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ghosh I, Ghosh P, Bharti AC, Mandal R, Biswas J, Basu P. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and co-existent sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers, men having sex with men and injectable drug abusers from eastern India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(3):799–802.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gilbert M, Kwag M, Mei W, Rank C, Kropp R, Severini A, et al. Feasibility of incorporating self-collected rectal swabs into a community venue-based survey to measure the prevalence of HPV infection in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(10):964–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilbert M, Hottes TS, Kerr T, Taylor D, Fairley CK, Lester R, et al. Factors associated with intention to use Internet-based testing for sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(11):e254.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Goldstone SE, Kawalek AZ, Goldstone RN, Goldstone AB. Hybrid capture II detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus: a useful tool when evaluating men who have sex with men with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on anal cytology. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008;51(7):1130–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Grace D, Chown S, Jollimore J, Parry R, Kwag M, Steinberg M, et al. HIV-negative gay men’s accounts of using context-dependent sero-adaptive strategies. Cult Health Sex. 2014;16(3):316–30.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2014.883644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grov C, Rendina HJ, Breslow AS, Ventuneac A, Adelson S, Parsons JT. Characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) who attend sex parties: results from a national online sample in the USA. Sex Transm Infect. 2014;90(1):26–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gunn RA, O’Brien CJ, Lee MA, Gilchick RA. Gonorrhea screening among men who have sex with men: value of multiple anatomic site testing, San Diego, California, 1997-2003. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(10):845–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Halioua B, Bohbot JM, Monfort L, Nassar N, de Barbeyrac B, Monsonego J, Sednaoui P. Ano-rectal lymphogranuloma venereum: 22 cases reported in a sexually transmitted infections center in Paris. Eur J Dermatol. 2006;16(2):177–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Henderson HJ. Why lesbians should be encouraged to have regular cervical screening. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2009;35(1):49–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hinchliff S, Gott M, Galena E. “I daresay I might find it embarrassing”: general practitioners’ perspectives on discussing sexual health issues with lesbian and gay patients correspondence. Health Soc Care Community. 2001;13(4):345–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hospers HJ, Kok G. Determinants of safe and risk-taking sexual behavior among gay men: a review. AIDS Educ Prev. 1995;7(1):74–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Institute of Medicine. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  46. Kent CK, Chaw JK, Wong W, Liska S, Gibson S, Hubbard G, Klausner JD. Prevalence of rectal, urethral, and pharyngeal Chlamydia and gonorrhea detected in 2 clinical settings among men who have sex with men: San Francisco, California, 2003. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(1):67–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kirkcaldy RD, Zaidi A, Hook EW 3rd, Holmes KK, Soge O, del Rio C, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance among men who have sex with men and men who have sex exclusively with women: the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, 2005-2010. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(5 Pt 1):321–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Kirkcaldy R, Harvey A, Papp J, Del Rio C, Soge OO, Holmes KK, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance—the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, 27 sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016;65(7):1–19.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6507a1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Koblin BA, Husnik MJ, Colfax G, Huang Y, Madison M, Mayer K, et al. Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2006;20(5):731–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kratz M, Weiss D, Ridpath A, Zucker JR, Geevarughese A, Rakeman J, Varma JK. Community-based outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C infection in men who have sex with men, New York City, New York, USA, 2010–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(8):1379–86.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2108.141837.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Kreuter A, Skrygan M, Gambichler T, Brockmeyer NH, Stücker M, Herzler C, et al. Human papillomavirus–associated induction of human beta-defensins in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160(6):1197–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kropp RY, Wong T, The Canadian LGV Working Group. Emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum in Canada. CMAJ. 2005;172(13):1674–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Kuyper L, Vanwesenbeeck I. Examining sexual health differences between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual adults: the role of sociodemographics, sexual behavior characteristics, and minority stress. J Sex Res. 2011;48(2–3):263–74.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224491003654473.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Lambers FA, Prins M, Thomas X, Molenkamp R, Kwa D, Brinkman K, et al. Alarming incidence of hepatitis C virus re-infection after treatment of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected MSM. AIDS. 2011;25(17):F21–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lehmiller JJ, Ioerger M. Social networking smartphone applications and sexual health outcomes among men who have sex with men. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e86603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Lemp GF, et al. HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors among lesbians and bisexual women in San Francisco and Berkeley, California. Am J Public Health. 1995;85(11):1549–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Leung N, Vidoni M, Robinson D, Padgett P, Brown E. A community-based study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and molecular characterization among men who have sex with men. LGBT Health. 2017;4(5):345–51.  https://doi.org/10.1089/lgbt.2017.0016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewnard J, Berrang-Ford L. Internet-based partner selection and risk for unprotected anal intercourse in sexual encounters among men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Sex Transm Infect. 2014;90(4):290–6.  https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2013-051332.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Makadon HJ. Ending LGBT invisibility in health care: the first step in ensuring equitable care. Cleve Clin J Med. 2011;78(4):220–4.  https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.78gr.10006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Marrazzo JM, Stine K, Koutsky LA. Genital human papillomavirus infection in women who have sex with women: a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(3):770–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Marrazzo JM, Koutsky LA, Eschenbach DA, Agnew K, Stine K, Hillier SL. Characterization of vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women who have sex with women. J Infect Dis. 2002;185(9):1307–13.  https://doi.org/10.1086/339884.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Marrazzo JM, Coffey P, Bingham A. Sexual practices, risk perception and knowledge of sexual transmitted disease risk among lesbian and bisexual women. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2005;37(1):6–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Mathews WC, Booth MW, Turner JD, Kessler L. Physicians’ attitudes toward homosexuality: survey of a California county medical society. West J Med. 1986;144(1):106–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. McMillan A, van Voorst Vader PC, de Vries HJ. The 2007 European Guideline (International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections/World Health Organization) on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18(8):514–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. McNair R. Risks and prevention of sexually transmissible infections among women who have sex with women. Sex Health. 2005;2(4):209–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mimiaga MJ, Noonan E, Donnell D, Safren SA, Koenen KC, Gortmaker S, et al. Childhood sexual abuse is highly associated with HIV risk-taking behavior and infection among MSM in the EXPLORE study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51(3):340–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Morton L. Sexuality in the older adult. Prim Care. 2017;44(3):429–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2017.04.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Muzny CA, Harbison HS, Pembleton ES, Hook EW, Austin EL. Misperceptions regarding protective barrier method use for safer sex among African-American women who have sex with women. Sex Health. 2013a;10(2):138–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Muzny CA, Harbison HS, Pembleton ES, Austin EL. Sexual behaviors, perception of sexually transmitted infection risk, and practice of safe sex among Southern African American women who have sex with women. Sex Transm Dis. 2013b;40(5):395–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nieuwenhuis RF, Ossewaarde JM, Götz HM, Dees J, Thio HB, Thomeer MG, et al. Resurgence of lymphogranuloma venereum in western Europe: an outbreak of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar l2 proctitis in the Netherlands among men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(7):996–1003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Noor S, Rosser B. Enema use among men who have sex with men: a behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention. Arch Sex Behav. 2013;43(4):755–69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-013-0203-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Nusbaum MRH, Hamilton CD. The proactive sexual health history. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66(9):1705–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Pando MA, Balán IC, Marone R, Dolezal C, Leu CS, Squiquera L, et al. HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men recruited by RDS in Buenos Aires, Argentina: high HIV and HPV infection. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39834.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Price JH, Easton AN, Telljohann SK, Wallace PB. Perceptions of cervical cancer and Pap smear screening behavior by women’s sexual orientation. J Community Health. 1996;21(2):89–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Quint K, Bom R, Quint W, Bruisten SM, van der Loeff MF, Morré SA, de Vries HJ. Anal infections with concomitant Chlamydia trachomatisgenotypes among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11(1):63.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-11-63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Rankow EJ, Tessaro I. Cervical cancer risk and Papanicolaou screening in a sample of lesbian and bisexual women. J Fam Pract. 1998;47(2):139–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Reinton N, Moi H, Olsen AO, Zarabyan N, Bjerner J, Tønseth TM, Moghaddam A. Anatomic distribution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections in men who have sex with men. Sex Health. 2013;10(3):199–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Richardson D, Goldmeier D. Lymphogranuloma venereum: an emerging cause of proctitis in men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18(1):11–4; quiz 15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Robertson P, Schachter J. Failure to identify venereal disease in a lesbian population. Sex Transm Dis. 1981;8(2):75–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sanchez NF, Rabatin J, Sanchez JP, Hubbard S, Kalet A. Medical students’ ability to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered patients. Fam Med. 2006;38(1):21–7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16378255.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Sinković M, Towler L. Sexual aging: a systematic review of qualitative research on the sexuality and sexual health of older adults. Qual Health Res. 2019;29(9):1239–54.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732318819834.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Skinner CJ, Stokes J, Kirlew Y, Kavanagh J, Forster GE. A case-controlled study of the sexual health needs of lesbians. Genitourin Med. 1996;72(4):277–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Smith EM, Johnson SR, Guenther SM. Health care attitudes and experiences during gynecologic care among lesbians and bisexuals. Am J Public Health. 1985;75(9):1085–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Sonnex C, Strauss S, Gray JJ. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA on the fingers of patients with genital warts. Sex Transm Infect. 1999;75(5):317–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Stall R, Mills TC, Williamson J, Hart T, Greenwood G, Paul J, et al. Association of co-occurring psychosocial health problems and increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among urban men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(6):939–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Stark D, van Hal S, Hillman R, Harkness J, Marriott D. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Australia: anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2b in men who have sex with men. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45(3):1029–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Stevens PE. Lesbian health care research: a review of the literature from 1970 to 1990. Health Care Women Int. 1992;13(2):91–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Stevens PE, Hall JM. Stigma, health beliefs and experiences with health care in lesbian women. J Nurs Scholarsh. 1988;20(2):69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sullivan PS, Hamouda O, Delpech V, Geduld JE, Prejean J, Semaille C, et al. Reemergence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in North America, Western Europe, and Australia, 1996-2005. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19(6):423–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sullivan PS, Peterson J, Rosenberg ES, Kelley CF, Cooper H, Vaughan A, et al. Understanding racial HIV/STI disparities in black and white men who have sex with men: a multilevel approach. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e90514.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Tian LH, Peterman TA, Tao G, Brooks LC, Metcalf C, Malotte CK, et al. Heterosexual anal sex activity in the year after an STD clinic visit. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(11):905–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Tinmouth J, Rachlis A, Wesson T, Hsieh E. Lymphogranuloma venereum in North America: case reports and an update for gastroenterologists. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(4):469–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. van de Laar TJ, van der Bij AK, Prins M, Bruisten SM, Brinkman K, Ruys TA, et al. Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission. J Infect Dis. 2007;196(2):230–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. van de Laar T, et al. Evidence of a large, international network of HCV transmission in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Gastroenterology. 2009;136(5):1609–17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Van der Bij AK, Pybus O, Bruisten S, Brown D, Nelson M, Bhagani S, et al. Diagnostic and clinical implications of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men: a retrospective case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42(2):186–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. van Griensven F, de Lind van Wijngaarden JW, Baral S, Grulich A. The global epidemic of HIV infection among men who have sex with men. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009;4(4):300–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. van Krosigk A, Meyer T, Jordan S, Graefe K, Plettenberg A, Stoehr A. Dramatic increase in lymphogranuloma venereum among homosexual men in Hamburg. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2004;2(8):676–80.Google Scholar
  98. van Rijckevorsel G, Whelan J, Kretzschmar M, Siedenburg E, Sonder G, Geskus R, et al. Targeted vaccination programme successful in reducing acute hepatitis B in men having sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. J Hepatol. 2013;59(6):1177–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. White JC, Dull VT. Health risk factors and health-seeking behavior in lesbians. J Womens Health. 1997;6(1):103–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. WHO. Defining sexual health: report of a technical consultation on sexual health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.Google Scholar
  101. Wolitski RJ, Fenton KA. Sexual health, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections among gay, bisexual, and other m en who have sex with men in the United States. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(Suppl 1):S9–S17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Xia Q, Osmond DH, Tholandi M, Pollack LM, Zhou W, Ruiz JD, Catania JA. HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men: results from a statewide population-based survey in California. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41(2):238–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Xu F, Sternberg MR, Markowitz LE. Men who have sex with men in the United States: demographic and behavioral characteristics and prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 infection: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(6):399–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ye S, Yin L, Amico R, Simoni J, Vermund S, Ruan Y, et al. Efficacy of peer-led interventions to reduce unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e90788.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Zheng B, Yin Y, Han Y, Shi MQ, Jiang N, Xiang Z, et al. The prevalence of urethral and rectal Mycoplasma genitalium among men who have sex with men in China, a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):195.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-195.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl G. StreedJr.
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ivy H. Gardner
    • 2
  • Kara Malone
    • 3
  • Brent C. Monseur
    • 4
  1. 1.Boston University School of Medicine, Center for Transgender Medicine & Surgery, Boston Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Oregon Health & Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  3. 3.The Ohio State University College of MedicineColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Thomas Jefferson University HospitalPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations