Psychiatry and Neurology

  • James R. LehmanEmail author
  • Ashley Rae Martinez
  • A. Ning Zhou
  • Stephan Carlson


LGBTQ individuals seeking mental or behavioral health care may present with similar complaints and stressors as their heterosexual counterparts, yet LGBT persons experience poorer mental health outcomes than socioeconomically-matched heterosexual and cisgender persons. LGBTQ mental health disparities do not arise from having same-sex sexual or gender nonconforming behaviors, thoughts, or desires but rather may be attributed to other factors. Health professionals must understand how stigma and discrimination inscribed in laws, social policies, and societal beliefs contribute to these disparities and to difficulties faced by individual patients. This chapter discusses the historical pathologization of homosexuality and gender discordance, the minority stress model, mental health disparities and common diagnoses, and neurology and psychiatry of HIV.


Minority stress Mental health LGBT mental health Gender dysphoria Internalized homophobia HIV neurology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Lehman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ashley Rae Martinez
    • 2
  • A. Ning Zhou
    • 3
  • Stephan Carlson
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Wisconsin–MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.University of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.NewYork-Presbyterian, Columbia and CornellNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Brookdale Hospital Medical CenterBrooklynUSA

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