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Nutrition, Health and Dietary Trends

  • John L. SievenpiperEmail author
  • Gabriele Riccardi
  • Camillo Ricordi
  • Katarzyna Dembska
Chapter

Abstract

The Global Burden Disease (GBD), the largest comparative analysis of the 79 leading risk factors, confirms that poor nutrition is the single most important contributor to the burden of premature morbidity and mortality, accounting for more than 10% of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) especially from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. At the same time, nutrition remains the cornerstone of therapy for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Dietary pattern-based clinical practice guidelines have provided clinicians, patients, and the public with a number of evidence-based options for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. The Mediterranean Diet is one of the dietary patterns that has been more extensively evaluated and strong evidence from observational and intervention studies has accumulated on its health benefits for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and other major chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and probably cognitive impairment. Nutrition could affect diet-induced inflammation, and the evolution of western diets has resulted in an increase of this inflammatory background signature, associated with a progressively increasing rate of chronic degenerative conditions. Several studies are in progress to evaluate the effect of anti-inflammatory interventions in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes. The data emerging indicates that dose and assessment of markers of reduced diet-induced inflammation may be important to assess potential benefit and tailor intervention guidelines.

Keywords

Dietary patterns Non-communicable diseases Mediterranean diet Clinical practice guidelines Nutrition therapy Diet-induced inflammation 

Notes

Funding statement

Dr. John L Sievenpiper was funded by a PSI Graham Farquharson Knowledge Translation Fellowship, Diabetes Canada Clinician Scientist award, and Banting & Best Diabetes Centre Sun Life Financial New Investigator Award for Diabetes Research. None of the sponsors had a role in any aspect of the present study, including design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, approval of the manuscript or decision to publish.

Disclosures Dr. John L Sievenpiper has received research support from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, Ontario Research Fund, Province of Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation and Science, Canadian Institutes of health Research (CIHR), Diabetes Canada, PSI Foundation, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre (BBDC), American Society for Nutrition (ASN), INC International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation, National Dried Fruit Trade Association, The Tate and Lyle Nutritional Research Fund at the University of Toronto, The Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Fund at the University of Toronto (a fund established by the Alberta Pulse Growers), and the Nutrition Trialists Fund at the University of Toronto (a fund established by an inaugural donation from the Calorie Control Council). He has received in-kind food donations to support a randomized controlled trial from the Almond Board of California, California Walnut Commission, American Peanut Council, Barilla, Unilever, Unico/Primo, Loblaw Companies, Quaker, Kellogg Canada, and WhiteWave Foods. He has received travel support, speaker fees and/or honoraria from Diabetes Canada, Mott’s LLP, Dairy Farmers of Canada, FoodMinds LLC, International Sweeteners Association, Nestlé, Pulse Canada, Canadian Society for Endocrinology and Metabolism (CSEM), GI Foundation, Abbott, Biofortis, ASN, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, INC Nutrition Research & Education Foundation, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. He has or has had ad hoc consulting arrangements with Perkins Coie LLP, Tate & Lyle, and Wirtschaftliche Vereinigung Zucker e.V. He is a member of the European Fruit Juice Association Scientific Expert Panel. He is on the Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committees of Diabetes Canada, European Association for the study of Diabetes (EASD), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and Obesity Canada. He serves or has served as an unpaid scientific advisor for the Food, Nutrition, and Safety Program (FNSP) and the Technical Committee on Carbohydrates of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI) North America. He is a member of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC), Executive Board Member of the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the EASD, and Director of the Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials foundation. His wife is an employee of Sobeys Inc.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • John L. Sievenpiper
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gabriele Riccardi
    • 4
  • Camillo Ricordi
    • 5
  • Katarzyna Dembska
    • 6
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of MedicineSt. Michael’s HospitalTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s HospitalTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolism research group, Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  5. 5.Diabetes Research Institute and Cell Transplant Center, University of MiamiMiamiUSA
  6. 6.Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (BCFN)ParmaItaly

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