Application and Biodegradation of Lignocellulosic Biomass

  • M. P. Singh
  • Sonam Agarwal
  • Ankita Kushwaha
  • Vivek K. Chaturvedi
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Lignocelluloses are the most inexhaustible natural compounds in the biosphere, representing around half of the biomass on the planet, with a yearly generation of 10–50 × 109 tons. They are produced as by-products in rural and ranger service from the foods grown, which in turn causes the accumulation of these squanders. This biomass, as squanders, is collected in substantial amounts each year, causing several environmental issue and loss of possibly significant assets. A huge commitment could be made by reusing and preserving this huge amount of biomass. The lignocellulosic biomass is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin which can be used for variety of purposes like in mash and paper businesses, the creation of fuel liquor and chemicals, protein for nourishment, textile industry, etc., thereby encouraging its utilization. The current modern action of lignocellulosic biomass maturation is restricted, basically in view of the trouble in financial bioconversion of these materials to esteem included items. A cheap way for its bioconversion is the cultivation of mushroom on these lignocelluloses material as they are rich source of nutrients, which provide mushrooms with nutrients and nourishment. The extracellular and intracellular enzymes of mushroom help in degrading wastes into easily digestible wastes, thereby making full use of the resources.


Lignocellulosic wastes Bioremediation Bioconversion Ligninolytic enzyme 


  1. Adebayo EA, Martinez-Carrera D (2015) Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus) are useful for utilizing lignocellulosic biomass. Afr J Biotechnol 14:52–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal S, Vaseem H, Kushwaha A, Gupta KK, Maurya S, Chaturvedi VK, Ravi P, Singh MP (2016) Yield, biological efficiency and nutritional value of Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated on floral and agro-waste. Cell Mol Biol 62:1–5Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal S, Gupta KK, Chaturvedi VK, Kushwaha A, Chaurasia PK, Singh MP (2018) The potential application of peroxidase enzyme for the treatment of industry wastes. In: Research advancements in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and industrial enzymology. IGI Global, pp 278–293Google Scholar
  4. Agosin E, Odier E (1985) Solid-state fermentation, lignin degradation and resulting digestibility of wheat straw fermented by selected white-rot fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 21:397–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alborés S, Pianzzola MJ, Soubes M, Cerdeiras MP (2006) Biodegradation of agroindustrial wastes by Pleurotus spp. for its use as ruminant feed. Electron J Biotechnol 9:52–67Google Scholar
  6. Anwar Z, Gulfraz M, Irshad M (2014) Agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass a key to unlock the future bio-energy: a brief review. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 7:163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asgher M, Bhatti HN, Ashraf M, Legge RL (2008) Recent developments in biodegradation of industrial pollutants by white rot fungi and their enzyme system. Biodegradation 19:771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball AS, Jackson AM (1995) The recovery of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from spent mushroom compost. Bioresour Technol 54:311–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldrian P (2006) Fungal laccases–occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:215–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Biely P (1985) Microbial xylanolytic systems. Trends Biotechnol 3:286–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Camarero S, Sarkar S, Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Martínez MJ, Martínez ÁT (1999) Description of a versatile peroxidase involved in the natural degradation of lignin that has both manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase substrate interaction sites. J Biol Chem 274:10324–10330Google Scholar
  12. Chaturvedi VK, Agarwal S, Gupta KK, Ramteke PW, Singh MP (2018) Medicinal mushroom: boon for therapeutic applications. 3 Biotech 8:334CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaturvedi VK, Singh A, Singh VK, Singh MP (2019) Cancer nanotechnology: a new revolution for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Curr Drug Met 20:416–429Google Scholar
  14. Chiu SW, Law SC, Ching ML, Cheung KW, Chen MJ (2000) Themes for mushroom exploitation in the 21st century: sustainability, waste management, and conservation. J Gen Appl Microbiol 46:269–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Claus H (2004) Laccases: structure, reactions, distribution. Micron 35:93–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen R, Persky L, Hadar Y (2002) Biotechnological applications and potential of wood-degrading mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 58:582–594CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Davari M, Sharma SN, Mirzakhani M (2012) Residual influence of organic materials, crop residues, and biofertilizers on performance of succeeding mung bean in an organic rice-based cropping system. Int J Recycling Org Waste Agric 1(1):14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dekker RF (1985) Biodegradation of the hemicelluloses. Biodegrad Wood Com 1985:505–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elisashvili V, Chichua D, Kachlishvili E, Tsiklauri N, Khardziani T (2003) Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity during growth and fruiting of the edible and medicinal mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. (Agaricomycetideae). Int J Med Mush 5:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eriksson KE, Blanchette RA, Ander P (1990) Morphological aspects of wood degradation by fungi and bacteria. In: Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ezeji TC, Qureshi N, Karcher P, Blaschek HP (2006) Production of butanol from corn. Chemical industries, vol 112. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 99Google Scholar
  22. Fermor T, Watts N, Duncombe T, Brooks R, McCarthy A, Semple K, Reid B (2000) Bioremediation: use of composts and composting technologies. Mush Sci 15:833–839Google Scholar
  23. Ferraroni M, Myasoedova NM, Schmatchenko V, Leontievsky AA, Golovleva LA, Scozzafava A, Briganti F (2007) Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases. BMC Struct Biol 7:60CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Garg SK, Modi DR (1999) Decolorization of pulp-paper mill effluents by white-rot fungi. Crit Rev Biotechnol 19:85–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glenn JK, Gold MH (1985) Purification and characterization of an extracellular Mn (II)-dependent peroxidase from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Arch Biochem Biophys 242:329–341Google Scholar
  26. Glenn JK, Akileswaran L, Gold MH (1986) Mn (II) oxidation is the principal function of the extracellular Mn-peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Arch Biochem Biophys 251:688–696CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gold MH, Alic MA (1993) Molecular biology of the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Microbiol Rev 57:605–622Google Scholar
  28. Gravitis J, Zandersons J, Vedernikov N, Kruma I, Ozols-Kalnins V (2004) Clustering of bio-products technologies for zero emissions and eco-efficiency. Ind Crops Prod 20:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guimaraes JL, Frollini E, Da Silva CG, Wypych F, Satyanarayana KG (2009) Characterization of banana, sugarcane bagasse and sponge gourd fibers of Brazil. Ind Crops Prod 30:407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gupta KK, Agarwal S, Kushwaha A, Maurya S, Chaturvedi VK, Pathak RK, Verma V, Singh MP (2017) Oyster mushroom: a rich source of antioxidants. Incredible world of biotechnology. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, New York. ISBN: 978-1-53611-282-5Google Scholar
  31. Haemmerli SD, Schoemaker HE, Schmidt HW, Leisola MS (1987) Oxidation of veratryl alcohol by the lignin peroxidase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Involvement of activated oxygen. FEBS Lett 220:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Howard RL, Abotsi EL, Van Rensburg EJ, Howard S (2003) Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. Afr J Biotechnol 2:602–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Husain Q (2006) Potential applications of the oxidoreductive enzymes in the decolorization and detoxification of textile and other synthetic dyes from polluted water: a review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 26:201–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Isikgor FH, Becer CR (2015) Lignocellulosic biomass: a sustainable platform for the production of bio-based chemicals and polymers. Polym Chem 6:4497–4559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jeznabadi EK, Jafarpour M, Eghbalsaied S (2016) King oyster mushroom production using various sources of agricultural wastes in Iran. Int J Recycling Org Waste Agric 5:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. John F, Monsalve G, Medina PLV, Ruiz CAA (2006) Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch. Dyna 73:21–27Google Scholar
  37. Kabirifard A, Fazaeli H, Kafilzadeh F (2012) Comparison of growth rate of four Pleurotus fungi species on wheat straw and date palm leaf substrates. Mala J Anim Sci 15:55–63Google Scholar
  38. Kakkar VK, Garcha HS, Dhanda S, Makkar GS (1990) Mushroom harvested spent straw as feed for buffaloes. Indian J Anim Nutr 7:267–272Google Scholar
  39. Kamara DN, Zadrazil F (1988) Microbiological improvement of lignocellulosic in animal feed production. Treat Ligno White Rot Fungi 1988:56–60Google Scholar
  40. Kamra DN, Zadražil F (1986) Influence of gaseous phase, light and substrate pretreatment on fruit-body formation, lignin degradation and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw fermented with Pleurotus spp. Agric Wastes 18:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kim M, Day DF (2011) Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38:803–807CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Koutrotsios G, Mountzouris KC, Chatzipavlidis I, Zervakis GI (2014) Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues by Agrocybe cylindracea and Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom fungi–assessment of their effect on the final product and spent substrate properties. Food Chem 161:127–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kuhad RC, Singh A (eds) (2007) Lignocellulose biotechnology: future prospects. IK International Pvt Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  44. Kuhad RC, Kuhar S, Kapoor M, Sharma KK, Singh A (2007) Lignocellulolytic microorganisms, their enzymes and possible biotechnologies based on lignocellulolytic microorganisms and their enzymes. lignocellulose biotechnology: future prospects. IK International Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  45. Kulshreshtha S, Mathur N, Bhatnagar P, Kulshreshtha S (2013) Cultivation of Pleurotus citrinopileatus on handmade paper and cardboard industrial wastes. Ind Crops Prod 41:340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kundu SS (2005) Roughage processing technology. Satish Serial Pub. House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuila A, Sharma V (eds) (2017) Lignocellulosic biomass production and industrial applications. Wiley, pp 1–276Google Scholar
  48. Madan M, Vasudevan P, Sharma S (1987) Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju on different wastes. Biol Wastes 22:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mahawar N, Goyal P, Lakhiwal S, Jain S (2015) Agro waste: a new eco-friendly energy resource. Int Res J 4:1–5Google Scholar
  50. Mahesh MS, Mohini M (2013) Biological treatment of crop residues for ruminant feeding: a review. Afr J Biotechnol 12(27):4221–4231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Malherbe S, Cloete TE (2002) Lignocellulose biodegradation: fundamentals and applications. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 1:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martín C, López Y, Plasencia Y, Hernández E (2006) Characterisation of agricultural and agro-industrial residues as raw materials for ethanol production. Chem Biochem Eng Q 20:443–447Google Scholar
  53. Maurya S, Bhardwaj AK, Gupta KK, Agarwal S, Kushwaha A (2016) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pleurotus and its bactericidal activity. Cell Mol Biol 62:131Google Scholar
  54. Mayer AM, Staples RC (2002) Laccase: new functions for an old enzyme. Phytochemistry 60:551–565CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mikiashvili N, Wasser SP, Nevo E, Elisashvili V (2006) Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on Pleurotus ostreatus ligninolytic enzyme activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:999–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Murarilal, Pereira BMJ (2006) Integrated biosystems for lignocellulosic waste management. In: Kuhad RC (ed) Lignocellulose biotechnology: present and future prospects. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd, pp 72–82Google Scholar
  57. Nie G, Reading NS, Aust SD (1999) Relative stability of recombinant versus native peroxidases from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Arch Biochem Biophys 365:328–334Google Scholar
  58. Ntougias S, Baldrian P, Ehaliotis C, Nerud F, Antoniou T, Merhautová V, Zervakis GI (2012) Biodegradation and detoxification of olive mill wastewater by selected strains of the mushroom genera Ganoderma and Pleurotus. Chemosphere 88:620–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Obi FO, Ugwuishiwu BO, Nwakaire JN (2016) Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management. Niger J Technol 35:957–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Orts WJ, Holtman KM, Seiber JN (2008) Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy. J Agric Food Chem 56:3892–3899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Parajó JC, Dominguez H, Domínguez J (1998) Biotechnological production of xylitol. Part 3: operation in culture media made from lignocellulose hydrolysates. Bioresour Technol 66:25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pedersen M, Meyer AS (2010) Lignocellulose pretreatment severity–relating pH to biomatrix opening. New Biotechnol 27:739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Philippoussis AN (2009) Production of mushrooms using agro-industrial residues as substrates. In: Biotechnology for agro-industrial residues utilisation. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 163–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Philippoussis AN, Diamantopoulou PA (2011) Agro-food industry wastes and agricultural residues conversion into high value products by mushroom cultivation. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on mushroom biology and mushroom products (ICMBMP7), France, 4–7 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  65. Philippoussis A, Diamantopoulou P, Zervakis G, Ioannidou S (2000) Potential for the cultivation of exotic mushroom species by exploitation of Mediterranean agricultural wastes. Mush Sci 15:523–530Google Scholar
  66. Poppe J (2000) Use of agricultural waste materials in the cultivation of mushrooms. Mush Sci 15:3–23Google Scholar
  67. Potumarthi R, Baadhe RR, Nayak P, Jetty A (2013) Simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification of rice husk by Phanerochete chrysosporium for improved production of reducing sugars. Bioresour Technol 128:113–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Prasad S, Singh A, Joshi HC (2007) Ethanol as an alternative fuel from agricultural, industrial and urban residues. Resour Conserv Recycling 50:1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rai RD, Ahlawat OP (2005) Recycling of agro-wastes for protein production through mushroom cultivation. Fungi Diver Biotechnol 2005:149–179Google Scholar
  70. Reddy CA (1995) The potential for white-rot fungi in the treatment of pollutants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 6:320–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ribbons DW (1987) Chemicals from lignin. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 321:485–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rodríguez G, Lama A, Rodríguez R, Jiménez A, Guillén R, Fernández-Bolaños J (2008) Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds. Bioresour Technol 99:5261–5269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Guillén F, Camarero S, Pérez-Boada M, Martínez MJ, Martínez ÁT (1999) Regulation of peroxidase transcript levels in liquid cultures of the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus eryngii. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:4458–4463PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Salmones D, Mata G, Waliszewski KN (2005) Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation. Bioresour Technol 96:537–544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sánchez C (2009) Lignocellulosic residues: biodegradation and bioconversion by fungi. Biotechnol Adv 27:185–194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sindhu R, Binod P, Pandey A (2016) Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass–an overview. Bioresour Technol 199:76–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Singh MP, Gautam NC (2004) An overview of lignocellulose biotechnology. Recent Adv Biotechnol 2004:3–20Google Scholar
  78. Stamets P (2011) Growing gourmet and medicinal mushrooms. Ten Speed Press, 13 JulyGoogle Scholar
  79. Streeter CL, Conway KE, Horn GW, Mader TL (1982) Nutritional evaluation of wheat straw incubated with the edible mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 54:183–188Google Scholar
  80. Szulczyk KR, McCarl BA, Cornforth G (2010) Market penetration of ethanol. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:394–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ten Have R, Teunissen PJ (2001) Oxidative mechanisms involved in lignin degradation by white-rot fungi. Chem Rev 101:3397–3414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Tewari RP, Pandey M (2002) Sizeable income generating venture. The Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture 2002:155–167Google Scholar
  83. Umezawa T, Higuchi T (1987) Mechanism of aromatic ring cleavage of β-O-4 lignin substructure models by lignin peroxidase. FEBS Lett 218:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Van Dyk JS, Pletschke BI (2012) A review of lignocellulose bioconversion using enzymatic hydrolysis and synergistic cooperation between enzymes factors affecting enzymes, conversion and synergy. Biotechnol Adv 30:1458–1480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang B, Dong F, Chen M, Zhu J, Tan J, Fu X, Wang Y, Chen S (2016) Advances in recycling and utilization of agricultural wastes in China: based on environmental risk, crucial pathways, influencing factors, policy mechanism. Procedia Environ Sci 31:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wariishi H, Valli K, Gold MH (1992) Manganese (II) oxidation by manganese peroxidase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Kinetic mechanism and role of chelators. J Biol Chem 267:23688–23695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wesenberg D, Kyriakides I, Agathos SN (2003) White-rot fungi and their enzymes for the treatment of industrial dye effluents. Biotechnol Adv 22:161–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilson DB, Irwin DC (1999) Genetics and properties of cellulases. In: Recent progress in bioconversion of lignocellulosics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  89. Wong DW (2009) Structure and action mechanism of ligninolytic enzymes. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 157:174–209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Yoshitake K, Katayama Y, Nakamura M, Iimura Y, Kawai S, Morohoshi N (1993) N-linked carbohydrate chains protect laccase III from proteolysis in Coriolus versicolor. Microbiology 139:179–185Google Scholar
  91. Youn HD, Hah YC, Kang SO (1995) Role of laccase in lignin degradation by white-rot fungi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 132:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zadrazil F, Reiniger P (1988) Treatment of lignocellulosics with white rot fungi. In: Elsevier applied science 1–225Google Scholar
  93. Zadrazil F, Dube HC (1992) The oyster mushroom–importance and prospects. Mushroom Res 1Google Scholar
  94. Zervakis G, Philippoussis A, Ioannidou S, Diamantopoulou P (2001) Mycelium growth kinetics and optimal temperature conditions for the cultivation of edible mushroom species on lignocellulosic substrates. Folia Microbiol 46:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zhang R, Li X, Fadel JG (2002) Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw. Bioresour Technol 82:277–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Zhu Y, Lee YY, Elander RT (2005) Optimization of dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using a high-solids percolation reactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 124:1045–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. P. Singh
    • 1
  • Sonam Agarwal
    • 1
  • Ankita Kushwaha
    • 1
  • Vivek K. Chaturvedi
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of Biotechnology, University of AllahabadPrayagrajIndia

Personalised recommendations