Advertisement

Disaster Risk Mitigation Strategies in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

  • Tuhin RoyEmail author
  • Mahbuba Nasreen
  • Abdullah Abusayed Khan
  • Md. Rezaul Karim
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary South Asian Studies book series (CSAS)

Abstract

Bangladesh is a low-lying deltaic country in South Asia crossed by the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Meghna Rivers. It is a land of about 159.3 million (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS 2011) people within its 147,570 km2 territory. Due to its geographical location, Bangladesh has struggled to cope with and recover from hazards and disasters for a very long time. Disaster risk reduction is a concept created by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR 2004); it denotes the aim to both reduce pre facto vulnerability regarding natural disasters and increase post-factum capacity to deal with them. This study mainly focuses on strategies linked to disaster risk mitigation at the southwestern coastal region following the cyclone ‘Aila.’ The purpose of the study is to explore the effectiveness of disaster risk reduction (DRR) processes and to find the level and degree of practical implementation of said processes in southwestern coastal Bangladesh. The methodology of the study is based on both primary and secondary data. This includes interviews as well as Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KII) for collecting qualitative and quantitative data. Sociocultural and politico-environmental processes strongly affect disaster risk mitigation—it is a matter of fact that DRR can have fruitful intervention so as to overcome the adversities linked to coastal livelihood. Observations showed that household heads are the main key player for the disaster risk mitigation strategies of a cyclone-affected community, which are severely vulnerable. The study also found that DRR processes depend on the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies which in turn is largely determined by their successful acknowledgement of an adaptation to the local communities and social structures involved. The study depicts various adaptation strategies by households and by the community at large (the local community cannot be considered as conscious and proactive); all initiatives regarding disaster risk mitigation activities must involve and promote local capacities. In addition, the study addresses community perception and responsiveness to efficiencies of DRR strategies and the role of both the local government and civil society organizations (CSO) regarding DRR and mitigation processes.

Keywords

Disaster Vulnerability DRR Risk mitigation Strategies Adaptive capacity Bangladesh Local community Bottom-up power 

References

  1. Ahsan MN, Ahmed MF, Bappy MH, Hasan MN, Nahar N (2011) Climate change induced vulnerability on living standard-a study on south western coastal region of Bangladesh. J Innov Dev Strateg 5(3):24–28Google Scholar
  2. BCCSAP (2009) Climate change strategy and action plan, 2009. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of Bangladesh. Retrieved from http://www.moef.gov.bd/climate_change_strategy2009.pdf
  3. CEGIS (2007) Investigating the impact of relative sea-level rise on coastal communities and their livelihoods in Bangladesh. UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  4. Christoplos I (2006) The elusive ‘window of opportunity’ for risk reduction. Paper presented at ProVention Consortium Forum. Bangkok, Thailand. ALNAP and Glemminge Development Research, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  5. Davies M, Oswald K, Mitchell T (2009) Climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and social protection. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  6. Dipecho (2011) A disaster resilient future: mobilizing communities and institutions for effective risk reduction. Disaster Preparedness ECHO, Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  7. EM-DAT (2013) Natural disasters reported 1975–2011 in Bangladesh. International Disaster Database. Université Catholique de Louvain, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  8. Garatwa W, Bollin DC (2002) Disaster risk management working concept. Activity area emergency and refugee aid, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbhGoogle Scholar
  9. Haque F (2018) Assessment of livelihood resilience in relation to cyclones and climate change along the south-western coastal belt of Bangladesh. Master’s thesis in natural resource management, specializing in geography Trondheim, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of GeographyGoogle Scholar
  10. Hasan H, Akhter S, Ahmed S, Kabir A (2013) Challenges of integrating disaster risk management and climate change adaptation policies at the national level: Bangladesh as a Case. Glob J Hum Soc Sci Geogr Geo-Sci Environ Disaster Manag 13(4):29–34Google Scholar
  11. HIES (2010) Bangladesh—household income and expenditure survey 2010, Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  12. Hossen A, Ahmed SU, Abedien MZ (2009) Good practices for community resilience. Practical action—Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hurricanes/archives/2013/h2013_Mahasen.html
  13. IPCC (2007) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of IPCC on climate change, 2007. Impacts, Adaptations and Vulnerability, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  14. Jahan I (2012) Cyclone Aila and the southwestern coastal zone of Bangladesh: in the context of vulnerability. Lund University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  15. Kazi S (2018) Coastal embankment improvement project—phase I (CEIP-I)—P128276—Sequence No: 10 (English). World Bank Group, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  16. Lindell MK, Prater CS (2003) Assessing community impacts of natural disasters. Am Soc Civ Eng Libr 4(4):176–185Google Scholar
  17. Mallick B, Witte SM, Sarkar R, Mahboob AS, Vogt J (2009) Local adaptation strategies of a coastal community during cyclone Sidr and their vulnerability analysis for sustainable disaster mitigation planning in Bangladesh. J Bangladesh Inst Plan 10(2):158–168Google Scholar
  18. Mondal P (2010) Integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation into development program: experiences from northern chars in Bangladesh. SHOUHARDO II Program, Care Bangladesh, Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  19. Mucke P (2012) World disaster report. (2012). World Risk Index. Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft (Alliance Development Works)Google Scholar
  20. Rahman M, Mokhlesur M (2013) Assessing natural disaster preparedness and climate change mitigation strategies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The HKU Scholars Club, Pokfulam, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  21. Roy K, Kumar U, Mehedi H, Sultana T, Ershad DM (2009). Initial Assessment Report with focus on Khulna District. Unnayan Onneshan—Humanity Watch—Nijera Kori, Khulna BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  22. Rubiera J, Burton A, Destin D (2010) Disaster mitigation strategies. Regional specialized meteorological center (RSMC), Florida, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Scawthorn C (2009) Disaster management for infrastructure. In: Krishnamurthy S (ed) Disaster management—global challenges and local solutions. Universities Press Private Limited, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  24. UN (2010) Cyclone Aila: joint UN multi-sector assessment and response framework, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. UNISDR (2004) Living with risk—a global review of disaster reduction initiatives, United NationsGoogle Scholar
  26. Zedillo E (ed) (2007) Global warming: looking beyond Kyoto. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. Zimmermann M, Glombitza KF, Rothenberger B (2012) Disaster risk reduction programme for Bangladesh 2010–2012. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tuhin Roy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mahbuba Nasreen
    • 2
  • Abdullah Abusayed Khan
    • 1
  • Md. Rezaul Karim
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Sociology DisciplineKhulna UniversityKhulnaBangladesh
  2. 2.Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies (IDMVS)University of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Municipal Governance and Services Project (MGSP), Local Government and Engineering Department, Local Government Division, Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operativesKhulnaBangladesh
  4. 4.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations