Advertisement

Human Rights and the Roma: Key Concepts

  • Jozefien Van Caeneghem
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter takes a closer look at the concepts that hold the key to researching human rights and the Roma. It concerns: (1) the closely connected and inter-related concepts equality and anti-discrimination, the distinction between direct and indirect discrimination, and the need to complement a formal and a substantive approach to equality; (2) the controversial notions race and ethnicity and the interpretation given to and difference between these overlapping social constructs; (3) the multi-dimensional concept social inclusion, and pluralism as an alternative approach to integration in order to promote diversity and counter assimilation; (4) minority rights protection and its two-pillar structure, the right to identity and the prohibition of assimilation as interrelated building blocks of minority rights protection, and minorities’ right to the effective participation in public life; (5) privacy as a relative, dynamic, and multi-dimensional concept that holds personal autonomy at its core and entails positive and negative obligations for State authorities; (6) personal data protection, the key difference between various types of data, the applicable legal frameworks, and the role of supervisory committees and data protection authorities; (7) socio-economic rights, including: (a) the right to education and its dual role in minorities’ protection and promotion; (b) the right to housing and the protection of traveling as an important element of Roma culture and identity; (c) the right to work as a broad right that fulfils economic, social, and developmental needs; (d) the right to health, of which States must realise the bare essentials immediately.

References

Legal Instruments

    United Nations

    1. Constitution of the World Health Organization (22 July 1946)Google Scholar
    2. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (18 December 1979) UNTS vol. 1249, 13Google Scholar
    3. Convention on the Rights of the Child (20 November 1989) A/RES/44/25Google Scholar
    4. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (31 December 2006) A/RES/61/106Google Scholar
    5. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (21 December 1965) UNTS vol. 660, 195Google Scholar
    6. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (16 December 1966) UNTS vol. 999, 171Google Scholar
    7. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (16 December 1966) UNTS vol. 993, 3Google Scholar
    8. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (10 December 2008) A/RES/63/117Google Scholar
    9. UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education (14 December 1960) UNTS vol. 429, 93Google Scholar

    Council of Europe

    1. Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data, regarding supervisory authorities and transborder data flows (8 November 2001) ETS 181Google Scholar
    2. Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter (5 May 1988) ETS 127Google Scholar
    3. Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (28 January 1981) ETS 108Google Scholar
    4. European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (4 November 1950) ETS 5Google Scholar
    5. European Social Charter (18 October 1961) ETS No. 35Google Scholar
    6. Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1 February 1995) ETS 157Google Scholar
    7. Protocol 1 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (20 March 1952) ETS 9Google Scholar
    8. Protocol 12 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (4 November 2000) ETS 177Google Scholar
    9. Protocol amending the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (10 October 2018) ETS 223Google Scholar
    10. Revised European Social Charter (3 May 1996) ETS 163Google Scholar

    European Union

    1. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (7 December 2000) OJ 2000/C 364/01Google Scholar
    2. Council Directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin (29 June 2000) OJ 2000/L 180/22Google Scholar
    3. Council Framework Decision 2008/877/JHA on the protection of personal data processed in the framework of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (27 November 2008) OJ 2008/L 350/60Google Scholar
    4. Decision No. 1098/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (22 October 2008) OJ 2008/L 298/20Google Scholar
    5. Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (24 October 1995) OJ 1995/L 281/31Google Scholar
    6. Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (12 July 2002) OJ 2002/L 201/37Google Scholar
    7. Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communication services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC (15 March 2006) OJ 2006/L 105/54Google Scholar
    8. Directive 2016/680 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities for the purposes of the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences of the execution of criminal penalties, and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA (27 April 2016) OJ 2016/L 119/89Google Scholar
    9. Regulation 45/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community institutions and bodies and on the free movement of such data (18 December 2000) OJ 2001/L 8/1Google Scholar
    10. Regulation 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (27 April 2016) OJ 2016/L 119/1Google Scholar
    11. Treaty establishing the European Community (Nice Consolidated version) (21 February 2001) OJ 2002/C 325/33Google Scholar
    12. Treaty on European Union (Consolidated version) OJ 2008/C 155/13Google Scholar
    13. Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (Consolidated version) OJ 2012/C 326/47Google Scholar

    National Level

    1. Austria, Federal Act Governing Equal Treatment (Gleichbehandlungsgesetz) Federal Gazette I No. 66/2004 as amended in Federal Law Gazette I No. 107/2013Google Scholar
    2. Finland, Non-Discrimination Act 1325/2014 (Yhdenvertaisuuslaki 1325/2014) (30 December 2014)Google Scholar
    3. France, Proposition of law to delete the word “race” from our legislation (Proposition de loi tendant à suppression du mot “race” de notre legislation) (13 May 2013)Google Scholar
    4. Sweden, Act 307/2003 Prohibiting Discrimination (Lag 2003:307 om förud mot diskriminering) (5 June 2003) Svensk Författningssamling, 2003-06-16, Vol. 7, No. 307, pp. 1–5Google Scholar

Non-legally Binding Instruments

    United Nations

    1. Commentary of the Working Group on Minorities to the United Nations Declaration on Rights of Persons belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (4 April 2005) E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.5/2005Google Scholar
    2. Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (3 February 1992) A/RES/47/136 (1994)Google Scholar
    3. Durban Declaration and Plan of Action (8 September 2001) A/CONF.189/12, endorsed in A/RES/56/266 (2002)Google Scholar
    4. Explanatory Report on the Draft Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice (25 September 1978) 20C/18Google Scholar
    5. Final report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on housing rights on the realization of economic, social and cultural rights, Mr. Rajindar Sachar, on the right to adequate housing (12 July 1995) E/CN.4/Sub.2/1995/12Google Scholar
    6. Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000 (19 November 1981) A/Res/36/43Google Scholar
    7. Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Limburg Principles) (8 January 1987) E/CN.4/1987/17 AnnexGoogle Scholar
    8. Memorandum of United Nations Secretary-General on The Main Types and Causes of Discrimination (1953) UN Sales No. 49.XIV.3Google Scholar
    9. Report of the Special Rapporteur on combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance on the comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action (20 August 2015) A/70/335Google Scholar
    10. Report on the fiftieth and fifty-first sessions of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (2014) E/2014/22 and E/C.12/2013/3Google Scholar
    11. UNESCO Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice (27 November 1978) E/CN.4/Sub.2/1982/2/Add.1 annex VGoogle Scholar
    12. UNESCO Proposal on the biological aspects of race (August 1964)Google Scholar
    13. UNESCO Statement on race (July 1950)Google Scholar
    14. UNESCO Statement on race and racial prejudice (September 1967)Google Scholar
    15. UNESCO Statement on the nature of race and race differences (June 1951)Google Scholar
    16. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (10 December 1948) GA Res. 217 A(III)Google Scholar
    17. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (25 June 1993) A/CONF.157/23 (1993)Google Scholar
    18. Working Paper submitted by Asbjørn Eide on the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (13 May 1998) E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC5/1998/WP.1Google Scholar

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    1. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Guidelines Governing the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flow of Personal Data (23 September 1980) C(80)58/FINAL as revised on 11 July 2013 by C(2013)79Google Scholar

    Council of Europe

    1. Draft Explanatory Report of the Modernised Version of Convention 108 by the Consultative Committee of Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing from Personal Data (25 June 2015). Available via Council of Europe. www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/dataprotection/TPD_documents/Draft%20explanatory%20report%20-%20modernised%20Convention%20108%20-%20June26.pdf. Accessed 2 December 2018
    2. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (4 November 1992) ETS 148Google Scholar
    3. Explanatory Memorandum of Recommendation No.R(97)18 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning the Protection of Personal Data Collected and Processed for Statistical Purposes (30 September 1997)Google Scholar
    4. Explanatory Report to the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (28 January 1981) ETS 108Google Scholar
    5. Explanatory Report to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (5 November 1992) ETS 148Google Scholar
    6. Explanatory Report to the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1 February 1995) ETS 157Google Scholar
    7. Explanatory Report to the Protocol amending the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (10 October 2018) ETS 223Google Scholar
    8. Final document on the modernisation of Convention 108 by the Consultative Committee of of the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (15 June 2012) T-PD (2012)04MosGoogle Scholar
    9. Modernisation of Convention 108: new proposals by the Consultative Committee of of the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (27 April 2012) T-DP-BUR(2012)01Rev2_enGoogle Scholar
    10. Propositions of Modernisation by the Consultative Committee of the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (18 December 2012) T-DP_2012_04_rev4_EGoogle Scholar
    11. Recommendation CM/Rec(83)10 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the protection of personal data used for scientific research and statistics (23 September 1983)Google Scholar
    12. Recommendation CM/Rec(87)15 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States Regulating the Use of Personal Data in the Police Sector (17 September 1987)Google Scholar
    13. Recommendation CM/Rec(89)2 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the protection of personal data used for employment purposes (19 January 1989)Google Scholar
    14. Recommendation CM/Rec(97)5 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the protection of medical data (13 February 1997)Google Scholar
    15. Recommendation CM/Rec(97)18 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning the Protection of Personal Data Collected and Processed for Statistical Purposes (30 September 1997)Google Scholar
    16. Recommendation CM/Rec(2005)04 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on improving the housing conditions of Roma and Travellers in Europe (23 February 2005)Google Scholar
    17. Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)5 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on policies for Roma and/or Travellers in Europe (20 February 2008)Google Scholar
    18. Recommendation CM/Rec(2010)13 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data in the context of profiling (23 November 2010)Google Scholar
    19. Resolution (73)22 of the Committee of Ministers on data protection of the privacy of individuals vis-à-vis electronic data banks in the private sector (26 September 1973)Google Scholar
    20. Resolution (74)29 of the Committee of Ministers on data protection of the privacy of individuals vis-à-vis electronic data banks in the public sector (20 September 1974)Google Scholar
    21. Resolution 1740 of the Parliamentary Assembly on the situation of Roma in Europe and relevant activities of the Council of Europe (22 June 2010)Google Scholar

    European Union

    1. Commission Communication, Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (3 March 2010) COM(2010) 2020 finalGoogle Scholar
    2. Commission Communication, An EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020 (5 April 2011) COM(2011) 173 finalGoogle Scholar
    3. Commission Communication, Safeguarding Privacy in a Connected World – A European Data Protection Framework for the 21st Century (25 January 2012) COM(2012) 9 finalGoogle Scholar
    4. Commission Green Paper, Equality and non-discrimination in an enlarged European Union (28 May 2004) COM(2004) 379 finalGoogle Scholar
    5. Commission Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities for the purposes of prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, and the free movement of such data (25 January 2012) COM(2012) 10 finalGoogle Scholar
    6. Commission Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (25 January 2012) COM(2012) 11 finalGoogle Scholar
    7. Commission Staff Working Document, Roma in Europe: The Implementation of European Union Instruments and Policies for Roma Inclusion – Progress Report 2008-2010 (7 April 2010) SEC(2010) 400 finalGoogle Scholar
    8. Council Conclusions on the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council – A comprehensive approach on personal data protection in the European Union (24–25 February 2011)Google Scholar
    9. Declaration of the European Parliament on Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (6 May 1989) OJ 1989/C 120/51Google Scholar
    10. Declaration on the protection of personal data in the fields of judicial cooperation in criminal matters and police cooperation - Annexed to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference which adopted the Lisbon Treaty (13 December 2007) OJ 2007/C 306/0257Google Scholar
    11. Note from the Praesidium on the Draft Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – Text of the explanations relating to the complete text of the Charter as set out in CHARTE 4487/00 CONVENT 50 (11 October 2000)Google Scholar
    12. Opinion 4/2007 of Article 29 Data Protection Working Party on the Concept of Personal Data (20 June 2007)Google Scholar
    13. Resolution of the Council and Ministers of Education on School Provision for Gypsy and Traveller children (22 May 1989) OJ 1989/C 153/3-4Google Scholar
    14. Resolution of the Council and of the Ministers for Social Affairs meeting within the Council on combating social exclusion (29 September 1989) OJ 1989/C 277/01Google Scholar
    15. Resolution of the European Parliament on Non-Discrimination and Equal Opportunities for All – A Framework Strategy (14 June 2006) 2005/2191(INI)Google Scholar

    Other

    1. Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by the International Commission of Jurists (26 January 1997)Google Scholar

Case Law

    Human Rights Committee

    1. Coeriel et al. v. The Netherlands, Views (31 October 1994), Communication No. 453/1991Google Scholar
    2. F. H. Zwaan-de Vries v. The Netherlands, Views (9 April 1987) Communication No. 182/1984Google Scholar
    3. Ibrahima Gueye et al. v. France, Views (6 April 1989) Communication No. 196/1985Google Scholar
    4. Leonid Raihman v. Latvia, Views (28 October 2010) Communication No. 1621/2007Google Scholar
    5. Rafael Armando Rojas García v. Colombia, Views (3 April 2001) Communication No. 687/1996Google Scholar
    6. Toonen v. Australia, Views (31 March 1994) Communication No. 488/1992Google Scholar
    7. Yekaterina Pavlovna Lantsova v. the Russian Federation, Views (26 March 2002) Communication No. 763/1997Google Scholar

    European Court of Human Rights

    1. A, B and C v. Ireland, Judgment (16 December 2010, GC) Application No. 25579/05Google Scholar
    2. Abdulaziz, Cabales and Balkandali v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (28 May 1985) Application Nos. 9214/80, 9473/81 and 9474/81Google Scholar
    3. Airey v. Ireland, Judgment (9 October 1979) Application No. 6289/73Google Scholar
    4. Anna Maria Guerra and Others v. Italy, Judgment (19 February 1998, GC) Application No. 14967/89Google Scholar
    5. Beard v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (18 January 2001, GC) Application No. 24882/94Google Scholar
    6. Bensaid v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (6 February 2001) Application No. 44599/98Google Scholar
    7. Buckley v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (29 September 1996) Application No. 20348/92Google Scholar
    8. Case “Relating to Certain Aspects of the Laws on the Use of Languages in Education in Belgium” v. Belgium (Belgian Linguistics case), Judgment (23 July 1968) Application Nos. 1474/62, 1677/62, 1691/62, 1769/63, 1994/63 and 2126/64Google Scholar
    9. Chapman v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (18 January 2001, GC) Application No. 27238/95Google Scholar
    10. Christine Goodwin v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (11 July 2002, GC) Application No. 28957/95Google Scholar
    11. Connors v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (27 May 2004) Application No. 66746/01Google Scholar
    12. Copland v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (3 April 2007) Application No. 62617/00Google Scholar
    13. D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic, Judgment (13 November 2007) Application No. 57325/00Google Scholar
    14. Dickson v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (4 December 2007, GC) Application No. 44362/04Google Scholar
    15. Dudgeon v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (22 October 1981) Application No. 7525/76Google Scholar
    16. Evans v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (10 April 2007, GC) Application No. 6339/05Google Scholar
    17. Giacomelli v Italy, Judgment (2 November 2006) Application No. 59909/00Google Scholar
    18. Gillow v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (24 November 1986) Application No. 9063/80Google Scholar
    19. Goodwin v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (27 March 1996, GC) Application 17488/90Google Scholar
    20. Handyside v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (7 December 1976) Application No. 5493/72Google Scholar
    21. Hatton and others v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (8 July 2003, GC) Application No. 36022/97Google Scholar
    22. Hugh Jordan v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (4 May 2001) Application No. 24746/94Google Scholar
    23. I v. Finland, Judgment (17 July 2008) Application No. 20511/03Google Scholar
    24. Johnston and Others v. Ireland, Judgment (18 December 1986) Application No. 9697/82Google Scholar
    25. Kjeldsen, Busk Madsen and Pedersen v. Denmark, Judgment (7 December 1976) Applications Nos. 5095/71, 5920/72 and 5926/72Google Scholar
    26. K.U. v. Finland, Judgment (2 December 2008) Application No. 2872/02Google Scholar
    27. Leander v. Sweden, Judgment (26 March 1987) Application No. 9248/81Google Scholar
    28. Loizidou v. Turkey, Judgment (23 March 1995, GC) Application No. 15318/89Google Scholar
    29. Malone v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (2 August 1984) Application No. 8691/79Google Scholar
    30. Marckx v. Belgium, Judgment (13 June 1979) Application No. 6833/74Google Scholar
    31. Mikulić v. Croatia, Judgment (7 February 2002) Application No. 53176/99Google Scholar
    32. Nachova v. Bulgaria, Judgment (6 July 2005, GC) Application Nos. 43577/98 and 43579/98Google Scholar
    33. Niemietz v. Germany, Judgment (16 December 1992) Application No. 13710/88Google Scholar
    34. Norris v. Ireland, Judgment (26 October 1988) Application No. 10581/83Google Scholar
    35. Odièvre v. France, Judgment (13 February 2003) Application No. 42326/98Google Scholar
    36. Oršuš and Others v. Croatia, Judgment (16 March 2010, GC) Application No. 15766/03Google Scholar
    37. Peck v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (28 January 2003) Application No. 44647/98Google Scholar
    38. P.G. and J.H. v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (25 September 2001) Application No. 44787/98Google Scholar
    39. Pretty v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (29 April 2002) Application No. 2346/02Google Scholar
    40. Rees v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (25 September 1986) Application No. 9532/81Google Scholar
    41. Sampanis and Others v. Greece, Judgment (5 June 2008) Application No. 32526/05Google Scholar
    42. S. and Marper v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (4 December 2008, GC) Application Nos. 30562/04 and 30566/04Google Scholar
    43. Sejdić and Finci v. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Judgment (22 December 2009, GC) Application Nos. 27996/06 and 34836/06Google Scholar
    44. Smith and Grady v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (27 September 1999) Application Nos. 33985/96 and 33986/96Google Scholar
    45. Soering v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (7 July 1989) Application No. 14038/88Google Scholar
    46. The Sunday Times v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (26 April 1979) Application No. 6538/74Google Scholar
    47. Thlimmenos v. Greece, Judgment (6 April 2000, GC) Application No. 34369/97Google Scholar
    48. Timishev v. Russia, Judgment (13 December 2005) Application Nos. 55762/00 and 55974/00Google Scholar
    49. Tyrer v. the United Kingdom, Judgment (25 April 1978) Application No. 5856/72Google Scholar
    50. Uzun v. Germany, Judgment (2 September 2010) Application No. 35623/05Google Scholar
    51. V.C. v. Slovakia, Judgment (8 November 2011) Application No. 18968/07Google Scholar
    52. X and Y v. the Netherlands, Judgment (26 March 1985) Application No. 8978/80Google Scholar
    53. Yordanova and Others v. Bulgaria, Judgment (24 April 2012) Application No. 25446/06Google Scholar
    54. Z v. Finland, Judgment (25 February 1997) Application No. 22009/93Google Scholar

    European Commission on Human Rights

    1. June Buckley v. the United Kingdom, Report (11 January 1995)Google Scholar
    2. Niemietz v. Germany, Decision (29 May 1991)Google Scholar
    3. X v. Iceland, Decision (18 May 1975)Google Scholar
    4. Yvonne Chave née Julien v. France, Decision (9 July 1991)Google Scholar

    European Committee of Social Rights

    1. European Federation of National Organisations working with the Homeless (FEANTSA) v. France, Decision (5 December 2007) Collective Complaint No. 39/2006Google Scholar
    2. European Roma Rights Centre v. Bulgaria, Decision (3 December 2008) Collective Complaint No. 47/2007Google Scholar
    3. European Roma Rights Centre v. France, Decision (19 October 2009) Collective Complaint No. 51/2008Google Scholar
    4. European Roma Rights Centre v. Greece, Decision (8 December 2004) Collective Complaint No. 15/2003Google Scholar
    5. European Roma Rights Centre v. Italy, Decision (7 December 2005) Collective Complaint No. 27/2004Google Scholar

    Court of Justice of the European Union

    1. Asociación Nacional de Establecimientos Financieros de Crédito (ASNEF) and Federación de Comercio Electrónico y Marketing Directo (FECEMD) v. Administración del Estado, Judgment (24 November 2011) Joined Cases C-468/10 and C-469/10Google Scholar
    2. Eugen Schmidberger, Internationale Transporte und Planzüge v. Republik Osterreich, Judgment (12 June 2003) Case C-112/00Google Scholar
    3. Volker und Markus Schecke GbR and Hartmut Eifert v. Land Hessen, Judgment (9 November 2010, GC) Joined Cases C-92/09 and C-93/09Google Scholar

Country Monitoring

    Permanent Court of International Justice

    1. Advisory Opinion regarding Minority Schools in Albania, Opinion (6 April 1935) PCIJ Reports Series A/B, No 64Google Scholar

    Human Rights Committee

    1. Concluding Observations on Austria (15 November 2007) CCPR/C/AUT/CO/4Google Scholar
    2. Concluding Observations on the Czech Republic (22 August 2013) CCPR/C/CZE/CO/3Google Scholar
    3. Concluding Observations on Slovakia (22 August 2003) CCPR/CO/78/SVKGoogle Scholar

    Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    1. Chile summary record (partial) of the 12th meeting (16 February 1988) E/C.12/1988/SR.13Google Scholar
    2. Concluding Observations on Costa Rica (4 January 2008) E/C.12/CRI/CO/4Google Scholar
    3. Concluding Observations on Hungary (16 January 2008) E/C.12/HUN/CO/3Google Scholar
    4. Concluding Observations on Ukraine (4 January 2008) E/C.12/UKR/CO/5Google Scholar
    5. Concluding Observations on the United Kingdom (22 May 2009) E/C.12/GBR/CO/5Google Scholar
    6. North Korea summary record (partial) of the 22nd meeting (25 March 1987) E/C.12/1987/SR.22Google Scholar

    Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

    1. Concluding Observations on Colombia (28 August 2009) CERD/C/COL/CO/14Google Scholar
    2. Concluding Observations on the Czech Republic (14 September 2011a) CERD/C/CZE/CO/8-9Google Scholar
    3. Concluding Observations on Guatemala (19 May 2010) CERD/C/GTM/CO/12-13Google Scholar
    4. Concluding Observations on Italy (7 April 1999) CERD/C/304/Add.68Google Scholar
    5. Concluding Observations on Slovenia (27 August 2010) CERD/C/SVN/CO/6-7Google Scholar
    6. Concluding Observations on Sweden (23 September 2003) CERD/C/SWE/CO/19-21Google Scholar
    7. Concluding Observations on the United Kingdom (1 September 2011) CERD/C/GBR/CO/18-20Google Scholar

    Committee on the Rights of the Child

    1. Concluding Observations on Bulgaria (23 June 2008) CRC/C/BGR/CO/2Google Scholar
    2. Concluding Observations on the Czech Republic (17 June 2011b) CRC/C/CZE/CO/3-4Google Scholar
    3. Concluding Observations on Finland (3 August 2011) CRC/C/FIN/CO/4Google Scholar
    4. Concluding Observations on Panama (6 October 2011) CRC/C/PAN/CO/3-4Google Scholar
    5. Concluding Observations on Slovakia (10 July 2007) CRC/C/SVK/CO/2Google Scholar

    Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

    1. First Opinion on Georgia (19 March 2009) ACFC/OP/I(2009)001Google Scholar
    2. First Opinion on Hungary (22 September 2000) ACFC/INF/OP/I(2001)004Google Scholar
    3. First Opinion on Ireland (22 May 2003) ACFC/INF/OP/I(2004)003Google Scholar
    4. First Opinion on Slovakia (22 September 2000) ACFC/INF/OP/I(2001)001Google Scholar
    5. Second Opinion on Austria (8 June 2007) ACFC/OP/II(2007)005Google Scholar
    6. Second Opinion on the Czech Republic (24 February 2005) ACFC/INF/OP/II(2005)002Google Scholar
    7. Second Opinion on Estonia (24 February 2005) ACFC/INF/OP/II(2005)001Google Scholar
    8. Second Opinion on Ireland (6 October 2006) ACFC/OP/II/II(2006)007Google Scholar
    9. Second Opinion on Romania (24 November 2005) ACFC/OP/II(2005)007Google Scholar
    10. Third Opinion on Bosnia and Herzegovina (7 March 2013) ACFC/INF/OP/III(2013)003Google Scholar
    11. Third Opinion on the Czech Republic (1 July 2011) ACFC/OP/III(2011)008Google Scholar
    12. Third Opinion on Estonia (1 April 2011) ACFC/OP/III(2011)004Google Scholar
    13. Third Opinion on Finland (14 October 2010) ACFC/OP/III(2010)007Google Scholar
    14. Third Opinion on Germany (27 May 2010) ACFC/OP/III(2010)003Google Scholar
    15. Third Opinion on Italy (15 October 2010) ACFC/OP/III(2010)008Google Scholar
    16. Third Opinion on Lithuania (28 November 2013) ACFC/OP/III(2013)005Google Scholar
    17. Third Opinion on Norway (30 June 2011) ACFC/OP/III(2011)007Google Scholar
    18. Third Opinion on Poland (28 November 2013) ACFC/OP/III(2013)004Google Scholar
    19. Third Opinion on Portugal (4 December 2014) ACFC/OP/III(2014)002Google Scholar
    20. Third Opinion on the United Kingdom (30 June 2011) ACFC/OP/III(2011)006Google Scholar
    21. Fourth Opinion on Slovakia (3 December 2014) ACFC/OP/IV(2014)004Google Scholar
    22. Fourth Opinion on Spain (3 December 2014) ACFC/OP/IV(2014)003Google Scholar

General Comments and Recommendations

    Human Rights Committee

    1. General Comment No. 16: Article 17 (The Right to Privacy) (8 April 1988) HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 (1994)Google Scholar
    2. General Comment No. 18: Non-Discrimination (10 November 1989) HRI/GEN/1/Rev.6 (2003)Google Scholar
    3. General Comment No. 23: The rights of minorities (Art. 27) (8 April 1994) HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1Google Scholar
    4. General Comment No. 28: Article 3 (The equality of rights between men and women) (29 March 2000) CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.10Google Scholar

    Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    1. General Comment No. 3: The Nature of States Parties’ Obligations (Art. 2 para. 1) (14 December 1990) E/1991/23Google Scholar
    2. General Comment No. 4: The Right to Adequate Housing (Art. 11 para. 1) (13 December 1991) E/1992/23Google Scholar
    3. General Comment No. 11: Plans of Action for Primary Education (Art. 14) (10 May 1999) E/C.12/1999/4Google Scholar
    4. General Comment No. 12: The Right to Adequate Food (Art. 11) (12 May 1999) E/C.12/1995/5Google Scholar
    5. General Comment No. 13: The Right to Education (Art. 13) (8 December 1999) E/C.12/1999/10Google Scholar
    6. General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 12) (11 August 2000) E/C.12/2000/4Google Scholar
    7. General Comment No. 20: Non-Discrimination in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Art. 2, para. 2) (2 July 2009) E/C.12/GC/20Google Scholar

    Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

    1. General Recommendation No. 14: Definition of Discrimination (Art. 1 para. 1) (22 March 1993) A/48/18 (1994)Google Scholar
    2. General Recommendation No. 27: Discrimination against Roma (16 August 2000) A/55/18, annex VGoogle Scholar

    European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance

    1. General Policy Recommendation No. 7: National legislation to combat racism and racial discrimination (13 December 2002) CRI(2003)8Google Scholar
    2. General Policy Recommendation No. 13: Combating Anti-Gypsyism and Discrimination against Roma (24 June 2011) CRI(2011)37Google Scholar

    Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

    1. Commentary on Education under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (2 March 2006) ACFC/25DOC(2006)002Google Scholar
    2. Commentary on Effective Participation of Persons Belonging to National Minorities in Cultural, Social and Economic Life and in Public Affairs (27 February 2008) ACFC/31DOC(2008)001Google Scholar

Literature

  1. Ahmed T (2011) The impact of EU law on minority rights. Hart Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert G (2011) Forced sterilization and Romani women’s resistance in Central Europe. Different Takes 71:1–4Google Scholar
  3. Alfredsson G (1999) Minority rights and peace: available standards, procedures and institutions. In: Trifunovska S (ed) Minorities in Europe - Croatia, Estonia and Slovakia. Asser Press, The Hague, pp 3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alidadi K (2017) Gauging process towards equality? Challenges and best practices of equality data collection in the EU. Eur Equality Law Rev 2017(2):15–27Google Scholar
  5. Ashiagbor D (2005) The right to work. In: de Búrca G, de Witte B (eds) Social rights in Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 241–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baer S (2010) The basic law at 60 – equality and difference: a proposal for the guest list to the birthday party. German Law J 11:67–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baghai K (2012) Privacy as a human right: a sociological theory. Sociology 46(5):951–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ballard R (2002) Race, ethnicity and culture. In: Holborn M (ed) New directions in sociology. Causeway, Ormskirk, pp 9–124Google Scholar
  9. Banton M (1994) Discrimination. Open University Press, BuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnard C, Hepple B (2000) Substantive equality. Camb Law J 59:562–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumann G (1999) The multicultural riddle: rethinking national, ethnic and religious identities. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Beiter KD (2006) The protection of the right to education by international law. Koninklijke Brill, LeidenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell M (2007) Direct discrimination. In: Schiek D, Waddington L, Bell M (eds) Cases, materials and text on national, supranational and international non-discrimination law. Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp 185–322Google Scholar
  14. Bell M (2008) Racism and equality in the European Union. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Benoît-Rohmer F (1996) The minority question in Europe: texts and commentary. Council of Europe, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  16. Bezanson RP (1992) The right to privacy revisited: privacy, news, and social change, 1890–1990. Calif Law Rev 80:1133–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blank RM, Dabady M, Citro CF (eds) (2004) Measuring racial discrimination. National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. Breckenridge AC (1970) The right to privacy. Univeristy of Nebraska Press, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  19. Büllesbach A, Gijrath S, Poullet Y, Prins C (eds) (2010) Concise European IT law, 2nd edn. Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den RijnGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulmer M (1996) The ethnic group question in the 1991 census of population. In: Coleman D, Salt J (eds) Ethnicity in the 1991 census, vol 1. HMSO, London, pp 33–62Google Scholar
  21. Bulmer M, Solomos J (1998) Introduction: re-thinking ethnic and racial studies. Ethnic Racial Stud 21(5):819–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cardinale G (2004) The preparation of ECRI General Policy Recommendation No. 7. In: Niessen J, Chopin I (eds) The development of legal instruments to combat racism in a diverse Europe. Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, pp 81–92Google Scholar
  23. Chalmers D, Hadjiemmanuil C, Monti G, Tomkings A (2006) European Union Law: text and materials. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. Chopin I, Do TU (2010) Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe. The 27 EU Member States, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey compared. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke R (2013) Introduction to dataveillance and information privacy, and definitions of term. Available via Roger Clarke’s website. www.rogerclarke.com/DV/Intro.html. Accessed 26 Oct 2018
  26. Collins H (2003) Discrimination, equality and social inclusion. Modern Law Rev 66:16–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coomans F (2002) In search of the core content of the right to education. In: Chapman A, Russell S (eds) Core obligations: building a framework for economic and cultural rights. Intersentia, Antwerp, pp 217–246Google Scholar
  28. Coomans F (2006) Some introductory remarks on the justiciability of economic and social rights. In: Coomans F (ed) Justiciability of economic and social rights. Intersentia, Antwerp, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  29. Council of Europe (2018) Convention 108+: the modernised version of a landmark instrument. Available via the Council of Europe. https://www.coe.int/en/web/data-protection/-/modernisation-of-convention-108. Accessed 6 Mar 2019
  30. Craven M (1995) The international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights: a perspective on its development. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. Cullen H (1993) Education rights or minority rights? Int J Law Family 7(2):143–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dediu M (2007) The European Union: a promotor of Roma diplomacy. In: Nicolae V, Slavik H (eds) Roma diplomacy. International Debate Education Association, New York, pp 113–130Google Scholar
  33. De Hert P (2012) A human rights perspective on privacy and data protection impact assessments. In: Wright D, De Hert P (eds) Privacy impact assessment. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 33–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Hert P, Papakonstantinou V (2012a) The police and criminal justice data protection directive: comment and analysis. The IT Law Community SCL Forum/Computers and Law Magazine of SCL 22(6):1–5Google Scholar
  35. De Hert P, Papakonstantinou V (2012b) The proposed data protection regulation replacing Directive 95/46/EC: a sound system for the protection of individuals. Comp Law Secur Rev 28:130–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Hert P, Van Caeneghem J (2010) Noot Uzun t. Duitsland: Rechters mogen GPS-toezicht toevoegen aan het bestaande wetgevende arsenaal. Eur Hum Rights Cases 11(11):1448–1460Google Scholar
  37. De Schutter O (2007) Positive action. In: Schiek D, Waddington L, Bell M (eds) Cases, materials and text on national, supranational and international non-discrimination law. Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp 757–869Google Scholar
  38. De Schutter O (2008) The framework convention on the protection of national minorities and the law of the European Union. In: Verstichel A, Alen A, De Witte B, Lemmens P (eds) The framework convention for the protection of national minorities: a useful pan-European Instrument? Intersentia, Antwerp, pp 231–272Google Scholar
  39. Drzewicki K (2001) The right to work and rights in work. In: Eide A, Krause C, Rosas A (eds) Economic, social and cultural rights: a textbook, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 223–243Google Scholar
  40. Eide A (2001a) Cultural rights and minorities: on human rights and group accommodation. In: Hastrup K (ed) Legal cultures and human rights. Kluwer Law International, The Hague, pp 25–42Google Scholar
  41. Eide A (2001b) Economic, social and cultural rights as human rights. In: Eide A, Krause C, Rosas A (eds) Economic, social and cultural rights: a textbook, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 9–28Google Scholar
  42. Eide A (2008) Towards a Pan-European instrument? In: Verstichel A, Alen A, De Witte B, Lemmens P (eds) The framework convention for the protection of national minorities: a useful Pan-European Instrument? Intersentia, Antwerp, pp 5–17Google Scholar
  43. Eide A (2013) Ensuring social and economic rights of national minorities through the work of the advisory committee on the framework convention. In: Malloy TH, Caruso U (eds) Minorities, their rights, and the monitoring of the European Framework Convention for the protection of national minorities. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 43–61Google Scholar
  44. Eide A, Rosas A (2001) Economic, social and cultural rights: a universal challenge. In: Eide A, Krause C, Rosas A (eds) Economic, social and cultural rights – a textbook, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 3–7Google Scholar
  45. Erasmus G (2004) Socio-economic rights and their implementation: the impact of domestic and international instruments. Int J Legal Inform 32:243–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. European Commission (2010) The 10 common basic principles on Roma inclusion. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  47. European Court of Human Rights Research Division (2011) Cultural rights in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. Available via the European Court of Human Rights. www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Research_report_cultural_rights_ENG.pdf. Accessed 8 Oct 2018
  48. European Network Against Racism (2012) Social inclusion and data collection. Available via the European Network Against Racism. cms.horus.be/files/99935/MediaArchive/Factsheet_Final.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2018
  49. European Network of Equality Bodies (2012) Equality bodies combating discrimination on the ground of racial or ethnic origin. Available via Equinet Europe. http://www.equineteurope.org/IMG/pdf/Race_Perspective_MERGED_-_EN.pdf. Accessed 26 Oct 2018
  50. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2012) Opinion 2/2012 on the proposed data protection reform package, 1 October 2012. Available via European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. http://fra.europa.eu/en/opinion/2012/fra-opinion-proposed-eu-data-protection-reform-package. Accessed 27 Oct 2018
  51. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights and Council of Europe (2011) Handbook on European non-discrimination Law. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  52. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights and Council of Europe (2014) Handbook on European data protection law. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  53. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights and Council of Europe (2018a) Handbook on European data protection law. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  54. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights and Council of Europe (2018b) Handbook on European Non-discrimination Law – 2018 edition. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  55. European Union Network of Independent Experts in Fundamental Rights (2006) Commentary of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Available via UC Louvain. https://sites.uclouvain.be/cridho/documents/Download.Rep/NetworkCommentaryFinal.pdf. Accessed 26 Oct 2018
  56. Farkas L (2007) Segregation of Roma children in education – addressing structural discrimination through the race equality directive. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  57. Farkas L (2011) How to present a discrimination claim - handbook on seeking remedies under the EU non-discrimination directives. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  58. Farkas L (2017) Data collection in the field of ethnicity. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  59. Finn RL, Wright D, Friedewald M (2013) Seven types of privacy. In: Gutwirth S, Leenes R, De Hert P (eds) European data protection: coming of age. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 3–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fredman S (2005) Changing the norm: positive duties in equal treatment legislation. Maastricht J Eur Comp Law 12:369–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fredman S (2008) Human rights transformed: positive rights and positive duties. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fredman S (2011) Discrimination law. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  63. Fried C (1968) Privacy. Yale Law J 77(3):475–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gellert R, de Vries K, De Hert P, Gutwirth S (2013) A comparative analysis of anti-discrimination and data protection legislations. In: Custers B et al (eds) Discrimination and privacy in the information society. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 61–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gerards J (2007) Discrimination grounds. In: Schiek D, Waddington L, Bell B (eds) Cases, materials and text on national, supranational and international non-discrimination law. Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp 33–184Google Scholar
  66. González Fuster G (2014) The emergence of personal data protection as a fundamental right in the EU. Springer, ViennaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Goodwin M (2009a) Taking on racial segregation: the European Court of human rights at a Brown v. Board of Education Moment. Rechtsgeleerd Magazijn THEMIS 3:14–126Google Scholar
  68. Goodwin M (2009b) Viewing Romani marginalisation through the nexus of race and poverty. In: Schiek D, Chege V (eds) European Union non-discrimination law – comparative perspectives on multidimensional equality law. Routledge, London, pp 137–161Google Scholar
  69. Gutwirth S (2002) Privacy and the information age. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  70. Gutwirth S, Leenes R, De Hert P, Poullet Y (2013) Foreword. In: Gutwirth S, Leenes R, De Hert P, Poullet P (eds) European data protection: coming of age. Springer, Dordrecht, pp v–viiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Guy W, Liebich A, Marushiakova E (2010) Improving the tools for the social inclusion and non-discrimination of Roma in the EU – Report. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  72. Hadden T (2004) Integration and separation: legal and political choices in implementing minority rights. In: Ghanea N, Xanthaki A (eds) Minorities, peoples and self-determination. Essays in Honour of Patrick Thornberry. Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, pp 173–191Google Scholar
  73. Haug W (2001) Ethnic, religious and language groups: towards a set of rules for data collection and statistical analysis. Int Stat Rev 69(2):303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hendriks A (1998) The right to health in national and international jurisprudence. Eur J Health Law 5:389–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Henrard K (2000) Devising an adequate system of minority protection – individual human rights, minority rights and the right to self-determination. Martinus Nijhoff, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  76. Henrard K (2008) The added value of the framework convention for the protection of national minorities (II) – the two pillars of an adequate system of minority protection revisited. In: Verstichel A, Alen A, De Witte B, Lemmens P (eds) The framework convention for the protection of national minorities: a useful pan-European instrument? Intersentia, Antwerp, pp 91–117Google Scholar
  77. Henrard K (2013) Minorities, identity, socio-economic participation and integration: about interrelations and synergies. In: Henrard K (ed) The interrelation between the right to identity of minorities and their socio-economic participation. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 21–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hermanin C, Möschel M, Grigolo M (2013) Introduction: how does race ‘count’ in fighting racial and ethnic discrimination in Europe? In: Möschel M, Hermanin C, Grigolo M (eds) Fighting discrimination in Europe – the case for a race-conscious approach. Routledge, London, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  79. Hervey TK (2005) We don’t see a connection: the ‘Right to Health’ in the EU charter and European Social Charter. In: de Búrca G, de Witte B (eds) Social rights in Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 305–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. High Level Advisory Group of Experts on the Social Integration of Ethnic Minorities and their Full Participation in the Labour Market (2007) Ethnic minorities in the labour market: an urgent call for better social inclusion. Available via Open Society Foundations. https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/report_20071201.pdf. Accessed 26 Oct 2016
  81. Hofmann R (2008) Implementation of the FCNM: substantive challenges. In: Verstichel A, Alen A, De Witte B, Lemmens P (eds) The framework convention for the protection of national minorities: a useful pan-European instrument? Intersentia, Antwerp, pp 159–185Google Scholar
  82. Hollo L (2006) Equality for Roma in Europe – a roadmap for action. Available via Open Society Foundations. https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/equality_2006.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2018
  83. Holt S (2008) Family, private life and cultural rights. In: Weller M (ed) Universal minority rights: a commentary on the jurisprudence of international courts and treaty bodies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 203–252Google Scholar
  84. Howard E (2010) The EU race directive – developing the protection against racial discrimination within the EU. Routledge, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  85. Human Rights Watch (1992) Struggling for ethnic identity: Czechoslovakia’s Endangered Gypsies. Available via Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/report/1992/08/01/struggling-ethnic-identity/czechoslovakias-endangered-gypsies. Accessed 26 Oct 2018
  86. Humphrey JP (1986) Preventing discrimination and positive protection for minorities: aspects of international law. Les Cahiers de Droit 27:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hustinx P (2011) General context – where we are now and where we are heading – current and future dilemma’s of privacy protection. In: Zombor F (ed) International data protection conference 2011. Hungarian Official Journal Publisher, Hungary, pp 16–19Google Scholar
  88. Ignăţoiu-Sora E (2011) The discrimination discourse in relation to the Roma: its limits and benefits. Ethnic Racial Stud 34(10):1697–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ivanov A (2012) Quantifying the unquantifiable: defining Roma populations in quantitative surveys. Population 3(4):79–95Google Scholar
  90. James A (2008) Making sense of race and racial classification. In: Zuberi T, Bonilla-Silva E (eds) White Logic, White Methods: racism and methodology. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, pp 31–34Google Scholar
  91. Jaroń A (2012) Socio-economic constitutional rights in democratisation processes: an account of the constitutional dialogues theory. Peter Lang, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Joseph S, Castan M (2013) The international covenant on civil and political rights – cases, materials and commentary, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  93. Kenner J (2003) EU employment law: from Rome to Amsterdam and beyond. Hart Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  94. Kierkegaard S, Waters N, Greenleaf G, Bygrave LA, Lloyd I, Saxby S (2011) 30 years on – the review of the Council of Europe Data Protection Convention 108. Comp Law Secur Rev 27:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kirby M (2011) The history, achievement and future of the 1980 OECD guidelines on privacy. Int Privacy Law 1(1):6–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Koch I (2006) Economic, social and cultural rights as components in civil and political rights: a hermeneutic perspective. Int J Hum Rights 10:405–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Koch I (2009) Human rights as indivisible – the protection of socio-economic demands under the European convention on human rights. Martinus Nijhoff, LeidenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Koldinská K (2011) EU non-discrimination law and policies in reaction to intersectional discrimination against Roma women in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Schiek D, Lawson A (eds) European Union non-discrimination law and intersectionality. Routledge, London, pp 241–258Google Scholar
  99. Lador-Lederer J (1968) International group protection: aims and methods in human rights. A. W. Sijthoff, LeydenGoogle Scholar
  100. Laferty M (2014) Article 8: the right to respect for private and family life, home, and correspondence. In: Harris D, O’Boyle M, Bates E, Buckley C (eds) Harris, O’Boyle, and Warbrick Law of the European convention on human rights, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 522–591Google Scholar
  101. Lauterpacht H (1945) An international bill of the rights of man. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  102. Leary VA (1993) Implications of a right to health. In: Mahoney K, Mahoney P (eds) Human rights in the twenty-first century: a global challenge. Kluwer-Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 481–494Google Scholar
  103. Leckie S (2001) The human right to adequate housing. In: Eide A, Krause C, Rosas A (eds) Economic, social and cultural rights – a textbook, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 149–168Google Scholar
  104. Lerner N (2003) Group rights and discrimination in international law. Martinus Nijhoff, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  105. Liégeois J-P (1994) Roma, Gypsies, Travellers. Council of Europe Publishing, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  106. Lipott S (2012) The Roma as a protected minority? Policies and best practices in the EU. Romanian J Eur Aff 12:78–97Google Scholar
  107. Loenen T (1999) Indirect discrimination: oscillating between containment and revolution. In: Loenen T, Rodriguez PR (eds) Non-discrimination law: comparative perspectives. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 195–211Google Scholar
  108. Loenen T, Hendriks A (2000) Noot Thlimmenos tegen Griekenland. NJCM Bull 25:1095–1105Google Scholar
  109. MacEwen M (1995) Tackling racism in Europe: an examination of anti-discrimination law in practice. Berg, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  110. Makkonen T (2006) Measuring discrimination – data collection and EU equality law. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  111. Makkonen T (2010) Equal in law, unequal in fact – racial and ethnic discrimination and the legal response thereto in Europe. Dissertation, University of HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  112. Mann JM, Gostin L, Gruskin S, Brennan T, Lazzarini Z, Fineberg HV (1994) Health and human rights. Health Hum Rights 1(1):6–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Marko J (2013) Five years after. Continuing reflections on the thematic commentary on effective participation. The interplay between equality and participation. In: Malloy TH, Caruso U (eds) Minorities, their rights, and the monitoring of the European framework convention for the protection of national minorities. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 97–120Google Scholar
  114. Marlier E, Atkinson AB, Cantillon B, Nolan B (2007) The EU and social inclusion. Policy Press, BristonGoogle Scholar
  115. Marshall J (2008) A right to personal autonomy at the European Court of human rights. Eur Hum Rights Law Rev 3:336–355Google Scholar
  116. Medda-Windischer R (2009) Old and new minorities: reconciling diversity and cohesion. Nomos, Baden-BadenGoogle Scholar
  117. Meija A (2011) Keynote speech of the Budapest Conference. In: Zombor F (ed) International Data Protection Conference 2011. Hungarian Official Journal Publisher, Hungary, pp 12–15Google Scholar
  118. Mera C, Iov CA (2013) The social policy in the EU – the national action plans for social inclusion in Spain. Res Sci Today 6:116–124Google Scholar
  119. Meyerson D (2008) Equality guarantees and distributive inequity. Public Law Rev 19:32–51Google Scholar
  120. Miller AR (1971) The assault on privacy. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  121. Möschel M (2013) Race in mainland European legal analysis: towards a European critical race theory. In: Möschel M, Hermanin C, Grigolo M (eds) Fighting discrimination in Europe – the case for a race-conscious approach. Routledge, London, pp 13–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mowbray A (2005) The creativity of the European Court of human rights. Hum Rights Law Rev 5(1):57–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nardell GC (2010) Levelling up: data privacy and the European Court of human rights. In: Gutwirth S, Poullet Y, De Hert P (eds) Data protection in a profiled world. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Negrin K (2003) Collecting ethnic data: an old dilemma, the new challenges. Available via Open Society Foundations. https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/briefing-papers/collecting-ethnic-data-old-dilemma-new-challenges. Accessed 26 Oct 2018
  125. Niessen J (2001) The further development of European anti-discrimination policies. In: Chopin I, Niessen J (eds) The starting line and the incorporation of the racial equality directive into the national laws of the EU member states and accession states. Commission for Racial Equality/Migration Policy Group, Brussels, pp 7–21Google Scholar
  126. Nikolaidis C (2015) The right to equality in European Human Rights Law – the quest for substance in the jurisprudence of the European Courts. Routledge, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  127. Nowak M (1991) The right to education – its meaning, significance and limitations. Netherlands Q Hum Rights 9:418–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Nowak M (2001) The right to education. In: Eide A, Krause C, Rosas A (eds) Economic, social and cultural rights – a textbook, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 245–271Google Scholar
  129. Nowak M (2005) UN covenant on civil and political rights: CCPR commentary. Engel, Kehl am RheinGoogle Scholar
  130. O’Brien CC (1984) What rights should minorities have? In: Whitaker B (ed) Minorities: a question of human rights? Pergamon Press, London, pp 11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. O’Connell P (2012) Vindicating socio-economic rights – international standards and comparative experiences. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2014) Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context. Available at OHCHR. www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Housing/Pages/HousingIndex.aspx. Accessed 3 Dec 2018
  133. O’Flaherty M (2006) The concluding observations of the United Nations human rights treaty bodies. Hum Rights Law Rev 6(1):27–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. O’Nions H (1995) The marginalisation of gypsies. Web J Curr Leg Iss 3(6):1–18Google Scholar
  135. O’Nions H (2007) Minority rights protection in international law – the Roma of Europe. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  136. Pentassuglia G (2002) Minorities in international law. Council of Europe, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  137. Polakiewicz J (2011) Convention 108 – still going strong after 30 years? In: Zombor F (ed) International Data Protection Conference 2011. Hungarian Official Journal Publisher, Hungary, pp 42–46Google Scholar
  138. Räikkä J (1996) Is a membership-blind model of justice false by definition? In: Räikkä J (ed) Do we need minority rights? Conceptual issues. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 3–19Google Scholar
  139. Rainey B, Wicks E, Ovey C (2014) The European convention on human rights, 6th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  140. Reding V (2012) The European data protection framework for the twenty-first century. Int Data Privacy Law 2(3):119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Riddell R (2002) Minorities, minority rights and development. Minority Rights Group International, LondonGoogle Scholar
  142. Ringelheim J (2006/7) Minority protection, data collection and the right to privacy. Eur Yearb Minority Iss 6:51–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ringelheim J (2008/9) Collecting racial or ethnic data for anti-discrimination policies: a U.S.-Europe comparison. Rutgers Race Law Rev 10:39–141Google Scholar
  144. Ringelheim J (2013a) Between identity transmission and equal opportunities: the multiple dimensions of minorities’ right to education. In: Henrard K (ed) The interrelation between the right to identity of minorities and their socio-economic participation. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 91–114Google Scholar
  145. Ringelheim J (2013b) Champan redux: the European Court of human rights and Roma traditional lifestyle. In: Brems E (ed) Diversity and European human rights – rewriting judgments of the ECHR. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 426–444Google Scholar
  146. Ringold D, Orenstein MA, Wilkens E (2005) Roma in an expanding Europe: breaking the poverty cycle. The World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  147. Ritzer G (2015) Introduction to sociology, 3rd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  148. Rughiniș C (2010) The forest behind the bar charts: bridging quantitative and qualitative research on Roma/Țigani in contemporary Romania. Patterns Prejudice 44(4):337–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ruiz MC (2003) El derecho a la proteccion de los datos personales en la carta de derechos fundamentales de la union europea: analisis critico. Revista de Derecho Communitario Europeo 7(14):7–43Google Scholar
  150. Sanz Caballero S (2008) The European Social charter as an instrument to eradicate poverty: failure or success. Cuadernos Constitucionales de la Cátedra Fadrique Furió Ceriol 64(65):157–170Google Scholar
  151. Scheinin M (2001) Economic and social rights as legal rights. In: Eide A, Krause C, Rosas A (eds) Economic, social and cultural rights – a textbook, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 29–54Google Scholar
  152. Schiek D (2002) A new framework on equal treatment of persons in EC law? Eur Law J 8(2):290–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schiek D (2007) Indirect discrimination. In: Schiek D, Waddington L, Bell M (eds) Cases, materials and text on national, supranational and international non-discrimination law. Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp 323–475Google Scholar
  154. Schiek D (2009) From European Union non-discrimination law towards multidimensional equality law for Europe. In: Schiek D, Chege V (eds) European Union non-discrimination law – comparative perspectives on multidimensional equality law. Routledge, London, pp 3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Scott C (1999) Reaching beyond (without abandoning) the category of “Economic, Social and Cultural Rights”. Hum Rights Q 21:633–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Shelton DL (2014) Advanced introduction to international human rights law. Edward Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Shue H (1984) The interdependence of duties. In: Alston P, Tomaševski K (eds) The right to food. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 83–95Google Scholar
  158. Sigona N (2005) Locating ‘The Gypsy Problem’. The Roma in Italy: stereotyping, labelling and ‘Nomad Camps’. J Ethnic Migr Stud 31(4):741–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Simon P (2004) Comparative study on the collection of data to measure the extent and impact of discrimination within the United States, Canada, Austria, Great-Britain and the Netherlands – Medis Project. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  160. Simon P (2007) “Ethnic” statistics and data protection in the Council of Europe Countries. Available via the Council of Europe. https://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/ecri/activities/Themes/Ethnic_statistics_and_data_protection.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2018
  161. Smis S, Janssens C, Mirgaux S, Van Laethem K (2011) Handboek Mensenrechten – De Internationale Bescherming van de Rechten van de Mens. Intersentia, MortselGoogle Scholar
  162. Smith NM (2011) Basic equality and discrimination – reconciling theory and law. Ashgate, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  163. Solove DJ (2008) Understanding privacy. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  164. Spiliopoulou Åkermark S (2013) Images of children in education: a critical reading of DH and others v. Czech Republic. In: Brems E (ed) Diversity and European human rights – rewriting judgments of the ECHR. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 40–67Google Scholar
  165. Tavani C (2012) Collective rights and the cultural identity of Roma: a case study of Italy. Brill – Nijhoff, LeidenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Thornberry P (1991) International law and the rights of minorities. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  167. Thornberry P (2005) Article 13. In: Weller M (ed) The rights of minorities. A commentary of the European framework convention for the protection of national minorities. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 393–406Google Scholar
  168. Thornberry P, Martín Estebanez MA (2004) Minority rights in Europe – a review of the work and standards of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  169. Tobler C (2005) Indirect discrimination: a case study into the development of the legal concept of indirect discrimination under EC law. Intersentia, AntwerpGoogle Scholar
  170. Toebes B (2001) The right to health. In: Eide A, Krause C, Rosas A (eds) Economic, social and cultural rights – a textbook, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 169–190Google Scholar
  171. Toebes B (2012) The right to health and other health-related rights. In: Toebes B, Hartlev M, Hendriks A, Rothmar Hermann J (eds) Health and human rights in Europe. Intersentia, Cambridge, pp 83–110Google Scholar
  172. Tomuschat C (1983) Protection of minorities under Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. In: Bernhardt R, Geck WK, Jaenicke G, Steinberger H (eds) Völkerrecht als Rechtsordnung Internationale Gerichtsbarkeit Menschenrechte, Festshrift für Hermann Mosler. Springer, Berlin, pp 949–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tyson A (2004) The negotiation of the EC directive on racial discrimination. In: Niessen J, Chopin I (eds) The development of legal instruments to combat racism in a diverse Europe. Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, pp 111–130Google Scholar
  174. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (2006) Conference of European Statisticians Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing. Available via UNECE. www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/publications/CES_2010_Census_Recommendations_English.pdf. Accessed 27 Oct 2018
  175. United Nations Statistics Division (2008) Principles and recommendations for a population and housing censuses, Rev. 2. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  176. Van Bueren G (2002) Including the excluded: the case for economic, social and cultural human rights act. Public Law Autumn Nr.:456–472Google Scholar
  177. van Dijk P, van Hoof F, van Rijn A, Zwaak L (eds) (2006) Theory and practice of the European Convention, 4th edn. Intersentia, AntwerpGoogle Scholar
  178. Verstichel A (2009) Participation, representation and identity – the right of persons belonging to minorities to effective participation in public affairs: content, justification, limits. Intersentia, AntwerpGoogle Scholar
  179. Vitorino A (2003) La Court de Justice et les droits fondamentaux depuis la proclamation de la charte. In: Colneric N, Edward D, Puissochet J-P, Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer D (eds) Une communauté de droit: Fetschrift für Gil Carlos Rodriguez Iglesias. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin, pp 111–126Google Scholar
  180. Waltzer J-P (2011) The Modernization of the Convention of the Council of Europe for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data (ETS No. 108): moving from a European Standard towards a universal standard for data protection? In: Zombor F (ed) International Data Protection Conference 2011. Hungarian Official Journal Publisher, Hungary, pp 81–86Google Scholar
  181. Westin A (1967) Privacy and freedom. Atheneum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  182. Whitman JQ (2004) The two Western cultures of privacy: dignity versus liberty. Yale Law J 113:1151–1153-1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wilborn E (1998) Revisiting the public/private distinction: employee monitoring in the workplace. Georgia Law Rev 32:825–887Google Scholar
  184. Whelan DJ, Donnelly J (2007) The west, economic and social rights, and the global human rights regime: setting the record straight. Hum Rights Q 29:908–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. World Health Organization (1981) Global strategy for health for all by the year 2000. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  186. World Health Organization (2010) How health systems can address health inequities linked to migration and ethnicity. WHO Regional Office for Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  187. Xanthaki A (2005) Hope dies last: an EU directive on Roma integration. Eur Public Law 11:515–526Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jozefien Van Caeneghem
    • 1
  1. 1.BrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations