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Mechanisms of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Autoimmune Disease Treatment

  • Nazmul Haque
  • Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
  • Noor Hayaty Abu KasimEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications book series (SCCA)

Abstract

Autoimmune diseases are among the major causes of morbidity and mortality globally, in which women are more vulnerable than men. Autoimmune disease is a pathological condition in which immune cells attack own cells as a result of losing self-tolerance. Several immunosuppressant drugs have been developed to treat autoimmune diseases. However, these drugs help to control the severity of the diseases rather than treating the root causes. In recent years, immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been explored, wherein these cells exhibit such properties through secretory factors. However, the secretion of immunomodulatory factors from MSCs is very dynamic and depends upon the inflamed microenvironment. Besides, the potential of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs has also been in the investigation in order to develop treatment for autoimmune diseases. In this review, we attempt to describe the cellular and molecular mechanism behind the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, while the immunomodulatory properties and the potential of MSCs and their EVs in treating these disorders have also been discussed.

Keywords

Mesenchymal stem cells Autoimmune diseases Extracellular vesicles Immunomodulatory 

Abbreviations

APC

Antigen-presenting cells

BM

Bone marrow

CTLA

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen

DCs

Dendritic cells

ESCs

Embryonic stem cells

EVs

Extracellular vesicles

G-MSCs

Gingival MSCs

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen G

h/m/cAD

Human/murine/canine adipose derived

IDO

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase

IFNγ

Interferon-γ

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IL

Interleukin

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

LIF

Leukemia inhibitory factor

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells

NFκB

Nuclear factor kappa B

NK

Natural killer

NKT

Natural killer T

NO

Nitric oxide

NP

Neural progenitor

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

STAT

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

TCR

T-cell receptor

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor β

Th

T-helper

TLR

Toll-like receptors

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor α

Treg

Regulatory T-cells

Ts

Suppressor T-cells

UC

Umbilical cord

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by High Impact Research MOHE Grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/DENT/01 from the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia and University of Malaya Research Grant UMRG RP019/13HTM.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors confirm that there are no conflicts of interest related to this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nazmul Haque
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
    • 3
  • Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of DentistryMAHSA UniversitySelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Regenerative Dentistry Research Group, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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