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Salmonella Arthritis

  • Gabriel J. Tobón
  • Juan Esteban Garcia-Robledo
  • Ivana Nieto-Aristizábal
Chapter

Abstract

Salmonella spp. are gram-negative bacilli with a set of virulence factors that allow them to develop gastrointestinal tract involvement, manifested as severe diarrhoea and enteric fever syndrome, as well as extra-intestinal involvement. They have been associated with different infectious and non-infectious diseases. Since the early nineteenth century, typhoid fever has been a topic of debate. Clinical manifestations of Salmonella infections depend on the serovar involved; although most patients exhibit typical enteric fever syndrome or gastroenteritis, up to 2% develop Salmonella arthritis, which can manifest as reactive arthritis (ReA) or septic arthritis (SA).

ReA refers to immune-mediated joint damage with aseptic synovitis, usually with polyarticular involvement, whereas SA refers to the direct involvement of joint tissues by Salmonella bacilli, usually following haematogenous spread from a gastrointestinal focus and with a monoarticular compromise. Although it is infrequent, Salmonella arthritis is responsible for an important proportion of mortality and permanent disability. Therefore, awareness regarding these conditions must be raised among clinicians and researchers to improve their prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

Keywords

Salmonella spp. Typhoid fever Reactive arthritis Septic arthritis Reiter’s syndrome HLA-B27 Eberth’s bacillus Interleukin-17 Lipopolysaccharide Joint involvement 

Abbreviations

DMARDs

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

EFS

Enteric fever syndrome

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

NSAIDs

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

ReA

Reactive arthritis

SA

Septic arthritis

SCV

Salmonella-containing vacuole

SPI-1

Salmonella pathogenicity island 1

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

There is no financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel J. Tobón
    • 1
  • Juan Esteban Garcia-Robledo
    • 2
  • Ivana Nieto-Aristizábal
    • 1
  1. 1.GIRAT (Grupo de Investigación en Reumatología, Autoinmunidad y Medicina Traslacional), Fundación Valle del Lili, Universidad IcesiCaliColombia
  2. 2.GIRAT (Grupo de Investigación en Reumatología, Autoinmunidad y Medicina Traslacional), School of Medicine, Universidad IcesiCaliColombia

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