Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Spectrum of Rheumatic Manifestations

  • Luis E. Vega
  • Luis R. Espinoza


Emerging and reemerging viral infections have been a characteristic feature of the past several decades, with HIV infection being the most important example of an emergent viral infection. To date, the status of a considerable proportion of HIV/AIDS patients has changed from a near-fatal disorder secondary to opportunistic infections to a chronic disease in which a variety of co-morbid conditions have become prevalent and relevant. Arthralgia and myalgias are the most common symptoms. The rate of spondyloarthritis varies according to the geographic area, genetic and mode of transmission. Most RA and SLE patients might go into remission after the development of AIDS, but also there are patients that continue with active disease. Prevalence of DILS is highest among African Americans in less advanced stages. PAN is clinically less aggressive and peripheral neuropathy is the most common clinical manifestation. Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), systemic sclerosis and poly-dermatomyositis are uncommon. After the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a decline of spondyloarthritis disorders and of DILS and development of new syndromes such as IRIS, osteoporosis and avascular bone necrosis have occurred. The treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases and HIV infection remains a challenge.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Rheumatic diseases AIDS Rheumatic manifestations Arthritis Spondyloarthritis Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome Bone diseases Anti-FNT and disease-modifying drugs Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis E. Vega
    • 1
  • Luis R. Espinoza
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineHospital Central de la Fuerza AéreaLimaPeru
  2. 2.LSU Health Sciences at New Orleans, Louisiana State UniversityNew OrleansUSA

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